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      SOCIETIES
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      VIEWER'S VIEWS
      WISDOM  
 02. INNOVATION
     
A. BIO-CHEMISTRY
      B. ENMALISP
      C. EXAMPLES
      D. MAIN CONCEPTS
      E. MATHEMATICS
      F.  CATALYST
     
G. MUSIC
      H. COLOUR DISC
       I. ORGANIC
      J.  INORGANIC
      K. PHYSICS

      L. STUDIOUS
      M. VIEWER'S VIEWS

 03. MANAGEMENT 
      
A. ARTILECT  
       B
. BE HAPPY
       C.
CONCEPTS
       D. DETAILS
       E. INDIRA GANDHI
       F. NOBEL
       G. POLI-FINANCE
       H. SLIDE SHOW
 
      I. SUMMARY    
      J. SUPPORTS
      K. VIEWER'S VIEWS  
          MANAGEMENT
          PRODUCTIVITY

 04. MOTIVATION
     
A. ARITHMETIC
      B. BESTPEDAL
      C. EPOCH MAKERS
      D. HANDICAPPED
      E. LEADS FOR

          SELF 
          SOCIAL
      F. SELF
MOTIVATION
          EXAMPLES
          DESTRUCTIVE
      G. SOCIAL MOTIVATN
          EXAMPLES
          DESTRUCIVE
  
  H. VIEWER'S VIEWS

 05.   MUSIC 
        
A. ARABIAN
         B. COLOUR CDs
         C. DIATONIC

        
D. EASTERN
        
E. INNOVATION
        
F. RAGAMS
         G. TEMPERED
        
H. VIEWER'S VIEWS
         I.  WESTERN
    -------------------------- 
 
05A. HEXOCTAL
        
A. ADMIRATION
         B. ARABIC
         C. CODE SET
         D. DIATONIC
         E. ENGLISH
         F. GERMAN
         G. HINDI
         H. KARNATAK
         I . KARNATAK KB
        J. MELODY
        K. PRIMARY RAGAM
        L. PUSHTU
        M. SCOTTISH          
        N.  TEMPERED
        O. URUDU    
    
   P. VIEWER'S VIEWS

 06. NEW-CONCEPTS 
     
A. DEVELOPMENT
      B. PHYSICS
 07. PUBLICATIONS    
     
A. ARTICLES
          ECONOMICS
          PRODUCTIVITY
          MANPOWER
          MATERIALS
          RESOURCE
          R & D
          TRAINING
      B. BOOKS
      C. REPEC
      D. SSRN  
 08. QUOTATIONS
       A. WORDS
       B. PICTURES  
           ANIMALS
           BIOLOGY
           BIRDS
           BOTANICAL
           BUILDINGS
           FLOWERS
           FRUITS
           HISTORICAL
           INSTITUTIONS
           LANDSCAPES
           MONUMENTS 
           NATURE
           PLANTS
           TRANSPORT
           TREES
            SPORTS
            STARS 
      
C. VIEWER'S VIEWS 
 09. SMART-THOUGHTS  
      
A. ALEXANDER
       B. ACHIEVEMENT
       C. ECONOMICS
       D. LION
       E. PHILOSOPHY
       F. SCIENCE
       G. TSUMANI
       H. UNIVERSE

       I. VIEWER'S VIEWS
 10. SOCIO-ECONOMIC
       A. ARTILECT        
       B. BUSH

      
C. CONCEPTS
       D DETAILS
       E. INDIRA GANDHI
       F. NOBEL
       G. POLI-FINANCE
       H. SLIDE SHOW
       
I. SUMMARY          
      J. SUPPORTS
      K. VIEWER'S VIEW   
 11. SOFTWARE (SW)
       A. APPLICATION
      
B. ARTILECT 
       C. BOOTING       
    
  D. CORPORATE
       E. DESIGNS
       F. HARDARE
       G. JOB SW
       H. OP.SYSTEM
       I. ORGANISATION SW
      J. SW QUALITY
      K. SW UTILITY
      L. UTILITY SW
      M
. VIEWER'S VIEW      
 12.  STARS & SKY     
      
A. ASTRONOMY
       B. CONSTELLATIONS
           INDIAN
           WESTERN
       C. ENMALISP
       D. GREEK ALFA
       E. MID NORTH
       F. NORTH NORTH
       G. STARS
            INDIAN
            WESTERN 
       H. SUN
       I. VIEWER'S VIEW
      J. ZODIAC
 13. VIEWR'S VIEWS
       ABOUT DRVSRS     
       DEVELOPMENT   
       COUNTRY
       FACULTY
       FEED BACK
       INNOVATION
       MANAGEMENT
       MOTIVATION
       MUSIC
       NAMES
       PRODUCTIVITY
       PROFESSION
       QUOTATIONS
       SOFTWARE
       STARS
       TOPICS 
       VIEWER'S VIEWS
       WEB CLASSES
 14. KEY-WORDS
        FAQ   A TO Z
       ANIMATIONS
       FLAGS
       HAPPY
       JOKES
       MELODIES
       QUOTATIONS
 15. DR.VSRS
       A. ABOUT 
       B. ACADEMIC
       C. ACHIEVEMENT
       D. ASSIGNMENTS
       E. ASSISTANCE
       F. CDB, BARBADOS
       G. CFTC, LONDON
       H. CONTACT          
        I.  FAMILY TREE
       J.  HOME  
       K. INNOVATIONS
       L. ISO 90001:2000
       M. NOBEL 
       N. PRIME PAPERS
       O. QUALITY AUDITOR
       P. SITE MAP
       Q. SOCIAL WORK
       R. VIEWER'S VIEWS
       S. WORLD TRAVEL       
 16.  CLOSE  

SPECIALITY

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ON THE WEB FROM AUGUST 01, 2001

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CIRCLES MENU CIRCLES

 01.FACULTYSHIPS
      ASSOCIATION
      COLLEGE
      CORPORATE
      GOVERNMENT
      INSTITUTIONS
      PRECAUTIONS
      SCHOOLS
      SOCIETIES
      UNIVERSITIES    
      VIEWER'S VIEWS
      WISDOM  
 02. INNOVATION
      A. BIO-CHEMISTRY
      B. ENMALISP
      C. EXAMPLES
      D. MAIN CONCEPTS
      E. MATHEMATICS
      F.  CATALYST
      G. MUSIC
      H. COLOUR DISC
       I. ORGANIC
      J.  INORGANIC
      K. PHYSICS

      L. STUDIOUS
      M. VIEWER'S VIEWS

 03. MANAGEMENT 
       A
. ARTILECT  
       B
. BE HAPPY
       C.
CONCEPTS
       D. DETAILS
       E. INDIRA GANDHI
       F. NOBEL
       G. POLI-FINANCE
       H. SLIDE SHOW

 
      I. SUMMARY    
      J. SUPPORTS
      K. VIEWER'S VIEWS  
          MANAGEMENT
          PRODUCTIVITY

 04. MOTIVATION
      A. ARITHMETIC
      B. BESTPEDAL
      C. EPOCH MAKERS
      D. HANDICAPPED
      E. LEADS FOR

          SELF 
          SOCIAL
      F. SELF
MOTIVATION
          EXAMPLES
          DESTRUCTIVE
      G. SOCIAL MOTIVATN

          EXAMPLES
          DESTRUCIVE
  
  H. VIEWER'S VIEWS

 05.   MUSIC 
        
A. ARABIAN
         B. COLOUR CDs
         C. DIATONIC

        
D. EASTERN
        
E. INNOVATION
        
F.
RAGAMS
         G. TEMPERED
        
H. VIEWER'S VIEWS
         I.  WESTERN
         -------------------------- 
 
05A. HEXOCTAL
         A. ADMIRATION
         B. ARABIC
         C. CODE SET
         D. DIATONIC
         E. ENGLISH
         F. GERMAN
         G. HINDI
         H. KARNATAK
         I . KARNATAK KB
        J. MELODY
        K. PRIMARY RAGAM
        L. PUSHTU
        M. SCOTTISH          
        N.  TEMPERED
        O. URUDU    

    
   P. VIEWER'S VIEWS

 06. NEW-CONCEPTS 
     
A. DEVELOPMENT
      B. PHYSICS
 07. PUBLICATIONS    
     
A. ARTICLES
          ECONOMICS
          PRODUCTIVITY
          MANPOWER
          MATERIALS
          RESOURCE
          R & D
          TRAINING
      B. BOOKS
      C. REPEC
      D. SSRN  
 08. QUOTATIONS
       A. WORDS
       B. PICTURES
  
           ANIMALS
           BIOLOGY
           BIRDS
           BOTANICAL
           BUILDINGS
           FLOWERS
           FRUITS
           HISTORICAL
           INSTITUTIONS
           LANDSCAPES
           MONUMENTS 
           NATURE
           PLANTS
           TRANSPORT
           TREES
            SPORTS
            STARS 
      
C. VIEWER'S VIEWS 
 09. SMART-THOUGHTS  
      
A. ALEXANDER
       B. ACHIEVEMENT
       C. ECONOMICS
       D. LION
       E. PHILOSOPHY
       F. SCIENCE
       G. TSUMANI
       H. UNIVERSE

       I. VIEWER'S VIEWS
 10. SOCIO-ECONOMIC
       A. ARTILECT        
       B. BUSH

      
C. CONCEPTS
       D DETAILS
       E. INDIRA GANDHI
       F. NOBEL
       G. POLI-FINANCE
       H. SLIDE SHOW
       
I. SUMMARY          
      J. SUPPORTS
      K. VIEWER'S VIEW   
 11. SOFTWARE (SW)
       A. APPLICATION
      
B. ARTILECT 
       C. BOOTING       
    
  D. CORPORATE
       E. DESIGNS
       F. HARDARE
       G. JOB SW
       H. OP.SYSTEM
       I. ORGANISATION SW
      J. SW QUALITY
      K. SW UTILITY
      L. UTILITY SW
      M
. VIEWER'S VIEW      
 12.  STARS & SKY     
      
A. ASTRONOMY
       B. CONSTELLATIONS
           INDIAN
           WESTERN
       C. ENMALISP
       D. GREEK ALFA
       E. MID NORTH
       F. NORTH NORTH
       G. STARS
            INDIAN
            WESTERN 
       H. SUN
       I. VIEWER'S VIEW
      J. ZODIAC
 13. VIEWR'S VIEWS
       ABOUT DRVSRS     
       DEVELOPMENT   
       COUNTRY
       FACULTY
       FEED BACK
       INNOVATION
       MANAGEMENT
       MOTIVATION
       MUSIC
       NAMES
       PRODUCTIVITY
       PROFESSION
       QUOTATIONS
       SOFTWARE
       STARS
       TOPICS 
       VIEWER'S VIEWS
       WEB CLASSES
 14. KEY-WORDS
        FAQ   A TO Z
       ANIMATIONS
       FLAGS
       HAPPY
       JOKES
       MELODIES
       QUOTATIONS
 15. DR.VSRS
       A. ABOUT 
       B. ACADEMIC
       C. ACHIEVEMENT
       D. ASSIGNMENTS
       E. ASSISTANCE
       F.
BOOKS
       G. CDB, BARBADOS
       H. CFTC, LONDON
       I. CONTACT          
      J.  FAMILY TREE
       K.  HOME  
       L. INNOVATIONS
       M. ISO 90001:2000
       N. NOBEL 
       O. PRIME PAPERS
       P. QUALITY AUDITOR
       Q. SITE MAP
       R. SOCIAL WORK
       S. VIEWER'S VIEWS
       T. WORLD TRAVEL       
 16.  CLOSE  

SPECIALITY

Contact :  Dr.VSRS  

GO TO HOME PAGE

 ANIMATION OF HAPPINESS - CLICK
 JOKES MENU - CLICK    LAUGH
 MATTER  SMART - CLICK
 MELODY MENU - CLICK
 PICTURE MENU - CLICK
 QUOTATIONS - CLICK
RECIPES

FEATURES

Contact :  Dr.VSRS  

GO TO HOME PAGE

 A.  ASSISTANCE
 B BOOKS
 F.   
 H.  HELP (FAQ)
  L.    LATEST SITE
  S.  SITE MAP

Contact :  Dr.VSRS  

GO TO HOME PAGE

WEB DETAILS

Contact : Dr.VSRS  

GO TO HOME PAGE

.PERSONAL 
Web-Site DESIGNED & MAINTAINED BY Intellectual Consultants
.

ON THE WEB FROM AUGUST 01, 2001

LAST UPDATE

RESEARCH &
DEVELOPMENT
CENTRE
RePEc  SSRN

Expert

3

Contact :   Dr.VSRS

 GET 
CLICK & GET DRVSRS TOOL BAR
 TOOL BAR

GO TO HOME PAGE

CIRCLES MENU CIRCLES

 01.FACULTYSHIPS
      ASSOCIATION
      COLLEGE
      CORPORATE
      GOVERNMENT
      INSTITUTIONS
      PRECAUTIONS
      SCHOOLS
      SOCIETIES
      UNIVERSITIES    
      VIEWER'S VIEWS
      WISDOM  
 02. INNOVATION
      A. BIO-CHEMISTRY
      B. ENMALISP
      C. EXAMPLES
      D. MAIN CONCEPTS
      E. MATHEMATICS
      F.  CATALYST
      G. MUSIC
      H. COLOUR DISC
       I. ORGANIC
      J.  INORGANIC
      K. PHYSICS

      L. STUDIOUS
      M. VIEWER'S VIEWS

 03. MANAGEMENT 
       A
. ARTILECT  
       B
. BE HAPPY
       C.
CONCEPTS
       D. DETAILS
       E. INDIRA GANDHI
       F. NOBEL
       G. POLI-FINANCE
       H. SLIDE SHOW

 
      I. SUMMARY    
      J. SUPPORTS
      K. VIEWER'S VIEWS  
          MANAGEMENT
          PRODUCTIVITY

 04. MOTIVATION
      A. ARITHMETIC
      B. BESTPEDAL
      C. EPOCH MAKERS
      D. HANDICAPPED
      E. LEADS FOR

          SELF 
          SOCIAL
      F. SELF
MOTIVATION
          EXAMPLES
          DESTRUCTIVE
      G. SOCIAL MOTIVATN

          EXAMPLES
          DESTRUCIVE
  
  H. VIEWER'S VIEWS

 05.   MUSIC 
        
A. ARABIAN
         B. COLOUR CDs
         C. DIATONIC

        
D. EASTERN
        
E. INNOVATION
        
F.
RAGAMS
         G. TEMPERED
        
H. VIEWER'S VIEWS
         I.  WESTERN
         -------------------------- 
 
05A. HEXOCTAL
         A. ADMIRATION
         B. ARABIC
         C. CODE SET
         D. DIATONIC
         E. ENGLISH
         F. GERMAN
         G. HINDI
         H. KARNATAK
         I . KARNATAK KB
        J. MELODY
        K. PRIMARY RAGAM
        L. PUSHTU
        M. SCOTTISH          
        N.  TEMPERED
        O. URUDU    

    
   P. VIEWER'S VIEWS

 06. NEW-CONCEPTS 
     
A. DEVELOPMENT
      B. PHYSICS
 07. PUBLICATIONS    
     
A. ARTICLES
          ECONOMICS
          PRODUCTIVITY
          MANPOWER
          MATERIALS
          RESOURCE
          R & D
          TRAINING
      B. BOOKS
      C. REPEC
      D. SSRN  
 08. QUOTATIONS
       A. WORDS
       B. PICTURES
  
           ANIMALS
           BIOLOGY
           BIRDS
           BOTANICAL
           BUILDINGS
           FLOWERS
           FRUITS
           HISTORICAL
           INSTITUTIONS
           LANDSCAPES
           MONUMENTS 
           NATURE
           PLANTS
           TRANSPORT
           TREES
            SPORTS
            STARS 
      
C. VIEWER'S VIEWS 
 09. SMART-THOUGHTS  
      
A. ALEXANDER
       B. ACHIEVEMENT
       C. ECONOMICS
       D. LION
       E. PHILOSOPHY
       F. SCIENCE
       G. TSUMANI
       H. UNIVERSE

       I. VIEWER'S VIEWS
 10. SOCIO-ECONOMIC
       A. ARTILECT        
       B. BUSH

      
C. CONCEPTS
       D DETAILS
       E. INDIRA GANDHI
       F. NOBEL
       G. POLI-FINANCE
       H. SLIDE SHOW
       
I. SUMMARY          
      J. SUPPORTS
      K. VIEWER'S VIEW   
 11. SOFTWARE (SW)
       A. APPLICATION
      
B. ARTILECT 
       C. BOOTING       
    
  D. CORPORATE
       E. DESIGNS
       F. HARDARE
       G. JOB SW
       H. OP.SYSTEM
       I. ORGANISATION SW
      J. SW QUALITY
      K. SW UTILITY
      L. UTILITY SW
      M
. VIEWER'S VIEW      
 12.  STARS & SKY     
      
A. ASTRONOMY
       B. CONSTELLATIONS
           INDIAN
           WESTERN
       C. ENMALISP
       D. GREEK ALFA
       E. MID NORTH
       F. NORTH NORTH
       G. STARS
            INDIAN
            WESTERN 
       H. SUN
       I. VIEWER'S VIEW
      J. ZODIAC
 13. VIEWR'S VIEWS
       ABOUT DRVSRS     
       DEVELOPMENT   
       COUNTRY
       FACULTY
       FEED BACK
       INNOVATION
       MANAGEMENT
       MOTIVATION
       MUSIC
       NAMES
       PRODUCTIVITY
       PROFESSION
       QUOTATIONS
       SOFTWARE
       STARS
       TOPICS 
       VIEWER'S VIEWS
       WEB CLASSES
 14. KEY-WORDS
     
FAQ   A TO Z
       ANIMATIONS
       FLAGS
       HAPPY
       JOKES
       MELODIES
       QUOTATIONS
 15. DR.VSRS
       A. ABOUT 
       B. ACADEMIC
       C. ACHIEVEMENT
       D. ASSIGNMENTS
       E. ASSISTANCE
       F.
BOOKS
       G. CDB, BARBADOS
       H. CFTC, LONDON
       I. CONTACT          
      J.  FAMILY TREE
       K.  HOME  
       L. INNOVATIONS
       M. ISO 90001:2000
       N. NOBEL 
       O. PRIME PAPERS
       P. QUALITY AUDITOR
       Q. SITE MAP
       R. SOCIAL WORK
       S. VIEWER'S VIEWS
       T. WORLD TRAVEL       
 16.  CLOSE  

SPECIALITY

Contact :  Dr.VSRS  

GO TO HOME PAGE

 ANIMATION OF HAPPINESS - CLICK
 JOKES MENU - CLICK    LAUGH
 MATTER  SMART - CLICK
 MELODY MENU - CLICK
 PICTURE MENU - CLICK
 QUOTATIONS - CLICK
RECIPES

FEATURES

Contact :  Dr.VSRS  

GO TO HOME PAGE

 A.  ASSISTANCE
 B BOOKS
 F.   
 H.  HELP (FAQ)
  L.    LATEST SITE
  S.  SITE MAP

Contact :  Dr.VSRS  

GO TO HOME PAGE

WEB DETAILS

.PERSONAL 
Web-Site DESIGNED & MAINTAINED BY Intellectual Consultants
.

ON THE WEB FROM AUGUST 01, 2001

LAST UPDATE

RESEARCH &
DEVELOPMENT
CENTRE
RePEc  SSRN

Expert

4

Contact :   Dr.VSRS

 GET 
CLICK & GET DRVSRS TOOL BAR
 TOOL BAR

GO TO HOME PAGE

CIRCLES MENU CIRCLES

 01.FACULTYSHIPS
      ASSOCIATION
      COLLEGE
      CORPORATE
      GOVERNMENT
      INSTITUTIONS
      PRECAUTIONS
      SCHOOLS
      SOCIETIES
      UNIVERSITIES    
      VIEWER'S VIEWS
      WISDOM  
 02. INNOVATION
      A. BIO-CHEMISTRY
      B. ENMALISP
      C. EXAMPLES
      D. MAIN CONCEPTS
      E. MATHEMATICS
      F.  CATALYST
      G. MUSIC
      H. COLOUR DISC
       I. ORGANIC
      J.  INORGANIC
      K. PHYSICS

      L. STUDIOUS
      M. VIEWER'S VIEWS

 03. MANAGEMENT 
       A
. ARTILECT  
       B
. BE HAPPY
       C.
CONCEPTS
       D. DETAILS
       E. INDIRA GANDHI
       F. NOBEL
       G. POLI-FINANCE
       H. SLIDE SHOW

 
      I. SUMMARY    
      J. SUPPORTS
      K. VIEWER'S VIEWS  
          MANAGEMENT
          PRODUCTIVITY

 04. MOTIVATION
      A. ARITHMETIC
      B. BESTPEDAL
      C. EPOCH MAKERS
      D. HANDICAPPED
      E. LEADS FOR

          SELF 
          SOCIAL
      F. SELF
MOTIVATION
          EXAMPLES
          DESTRUCTIVE
      G. SOCIAL MOTIVATN

          EXAMPLES
          DESTRUCIVE
  
  H. VIEWER'S VIEWS

 05.   MUSIC 
        
A. ARABIAN
         B. COLOUR CDs
         C. DIATONIC

        
D. EASTERN
        
E. INNOVATION
        
F.
RAGAMS
         G. TEMPERED
        
H. VIEWER'S VIEWS
         I.  WESTERN
         -------------------------- 
 
05A. HEXOCTAL
         A. ADMIRATION
         B. ARABIC
         C. CODE SET
         D. DIATONIC
         E. ENGLISH
         F. GERMAN
         G. HINDI
         H. KARNATAK
         I . KARNATAK KB
        J. MELODY
        K. PRIMARY RAGAM
        L. PUSHTU
        M. SCOTTISH          
        N.  TEMPERED
        O. URUDU    

    
   P. VIEWER'S VIEWS

 06. NEW-CONCEPTS 
     
A. DEVELOPMENT
      B. PHYSICS
 07. PUBLICATIONS    
     
A. ARTICLES
          ECONOMICS
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       A. ARTILECT        
       B. BUSH

      
C. CONCEPTS
       D DETAILS
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       F. NOBEL
       G. POLI-FINANCE
       H. SLIDE SHOW
       
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B. ARTILECT 
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  D. CORPORATE
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. VIEWER'S VIEW      
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      A. ARITHMETIC
      B. BESTPEDAL
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      D. HANDICAPPED
      E. LEADS FOR

          SELF 
          SOCIAL
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MOTIVATION
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          DESTRUCTIVE
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          EXAMPLES
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 05.   MUSIC 
        
A. ARABIAN
         B. COLOUR CDs
         C. DIATONIC

        
D. EASTERN
        
E. INNOVATION
        
F.
RAGAMS
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H. VIEWER'S VIEWS
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05A. HEXOCTAL
         A. ADMIRATION
         B. ARABIC
         C. CODE SET
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         E. ENGLISH
         F. GERMAN
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         H. KARNATAK
         I . KARNATAK KB
        J. MELODY
        K. PRIMARY RAGAM
        L. PUSHTU
        M. SCOTTISH          
        N.  TEMPERED
        O. URUDU    

    
   P. VIEWER'S VIEWS

 06. NEW-CONCEPTS 
     
A. DEVELOPMENT
      B. PHYSICS
 07. PUBLICATIONS    
     
A. ARTICLES
          ECONOMICS
          PRODUCTIVITY
          MANPOWER
          MATERIALS
          RESOURCE
          R & D
          TRAINING
      B. BOOKS
      C. REPEC
      D. SSRN  
 08. QUOTATIONS
       A. WORDS
       B. PICTURES
  
           ANIMALS
           BIOLOGY
           BIRDS
           BOTANICAL
           BUILDINGS
           FLOWERS
           FRUITS
           HISTORICAL
           INSTITUTIONS
           LANDSCAPES
           MONUMENTS 
           NATURE
           PLANTS
           TRANSPORT
           TREES
            SPORTS
            STARS 
      
C. VIEWER'S VIEWS 
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A. ALEXANDER
       B. ACHIEVEMENT
       C. ECONOMICS
       D. LION
       E. PHILOSOPHY
       F. SCIENCE
       G. TSUMANI
       H. UNIVERSE

       I. VIEWER'S VIEWS
 10. SOCIO-ECONOMIC
       A. ARTILECT        
       B. BUSH

      
C. CONCEPTS
       D DETAILS
       E. INDIRA GANDHI
       F. NOBEL
       G. POLI-FINANCE
       H. SLIDE SHOW
       
I. SUMMARY          
      J. SUPPORTS
      K. VIEWER'S VIEW   
 11. SOFTWARE (SW)
       A. APPLICATION
      
B. ARTILECT 
       C. BOOTING       
    
  D. CORPORATE
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       G. JOB SW
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      J. SW QUALITY
      K. SW UTILITY
      L. UTILITY SW
      M
. VIEWER'S VIEW      
 12.  STARS & SKY     
      
A. ASTRONOMY
       B. CONSTELLATIONS
           INDIAN
           WESTERN
       C. ENMALISP
       D. GREEK ALFA
       E. MID NORTH
       F. NORTH NORTH
       G. STARS
            INDIAN
            WESTERN 
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        FAQ   A TO Z
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       D. ASSIGNMENTS
       E. ASSISTANCE
       F.
BOOKS
       G. CDB, BARBADOS
       H. CFTC, LONDON
       I. CONTACT          
      J.  FAMILY TREE
       K.  HOME  
       L. INNOVATIONS
       M. ISO 90001:2000
       N. NOBEL 
       O. PRIME PAPERS
       P. QUALITY AUDITOR
       Q. SITE MAP
       R. SOCIAL WORK
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      SOCIETIES
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      VIEWER'S VIEWS
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 02. INNOVATION
      A. BIO-CHEMISTRY
      B. ENMALISP
      C. EXAMPLES
      D. MAIN CONCEPTS
      E. MATHEMATICS
      F.  CATALYST - MATHS
      G. MUSIC
      H. COLOUR DISC
       I. ORGANIC
      J.  INORGANIC
      K. PHYSICS

      L. STUDIOUS
      M. VIEWER'S VIEWS

 03. MANAGEMENT 
       A
. ARTILECT  
       B
. BE HAPPY
       C.
CONCEPTS
       D. DETAILS
       E. INDIRA GANDHI
       F. NOBEL
       G. POLI-FINANCE
       H. SLIDE SHOW

 
      I. SUMMARY    
      J. SUPPORTS
      K. VIEWER'S VIEWS  
          MANAGEMENT
          PRODUCTIVITY

 04. MOTIVATION
      A. ARITHMETIC
      B. BESTPEDAL
      C. EPOCH MAKERS
      D. HANDICAPPED
      E. LEADS FOR

          SELF 
          SOCIAL
      F. SELF
MOTIVATION
          EXAMPLES
          DESTRUCTIVE
      G. SOCIAL MOTIVATN

          EXAMPLES
          DESTRUCIVE
  
  H. VIEWER'S VIEWS

 05.   MUSIC 
        
A. ARABIAN
         B. COLOUR CDs
         C. DIATONIC

        
D. EASTERN
        
E. INNOVATION
        
F.
RAGAMS
         G. TEMPERED
        
H. VIEWER'S VIEWS
         I.  WESTERN
         -------------------------- 
 
05A. HEXOCTAL
         A. ADMIRATION
         B. ARABIC
         C. CODE SET
         D. DIATONIC
         E. ENGLISH
         F. GERMAN
         G. HINDI
         H. KARNATAK
         I . KARNATAK KB
        J. MELODY
        K. PRIMARY RAGAM
        L. PUSHTU
        M. SCOTTISH          
        N.  TEMPERED
        O. URUDU    

    
   P. VIEWER'S VIEWS

 06. NEW-CONCEPTS 
     
A. DEVELOPMENT
      B. PHYSICS
 07. PUBLICATIONS    
     
A. ARTICLES
          ECONOMICS
          PRODUCTIVITY
          MANPOWER
          MATERIALS
          RESOURCE
          R & D
          TRAINING
      B. BOOKS
      C. REPEC
      D. SSRN  
 08. QUOTATIONS
       A. WORDS
       B. PICTURES
  
           ANIMALS
           BIOLOGY
           BIRDS
           BOTANICAL
           BUILDINGS
           FLOWERS
           FRUITS
           HISTORICAL
           INSTITUTIONS
           LANDSCAPES
           MONUMENTS 
           NATURE
           PLANTS
           TRANSPORT
           TREES
            SPORTS
            STARS 
      
C. VIEWER'S VIEWS 
 09. SMART-THOUGHTS  
      
A. ALEXANDER
       B. ACHIEVEMENT
       C. ECONOMICS
       D. LION
       E. PHILOSOPHY
       F. SCIENCE
       G. TSUMANI
       H. UNIVERSE

       I. VIEWER'S VIEWS
 10. SOCIO-ECONOMIC
       A. ARTILECT        
       B. BUSH

      
C. CONCEPTS
       D DETAILS
       E. INDIRA GANDHI
       F. NOBEL
       G. POLI-FINANCE
       H. SLIDE SHOW
       
I. SUMMARY          
      J. SUPPORTS
      K. VIEWER'S VIEW   
 11. SOFTWARE (SW)
       A. APPLICATION
      
B. ARTILECT 
       C. BOOTING       
    
  D. CORPORATE
       E. DESIGNS
       F. HARDARE
       G. JOB SW
       H. OP.SYSTEM
       I. ORGANISATION SW
      J. SW QUALITY
      K. SW UTILITY
      L. UTILITY SW
      M
. VIEWER'S VIEW      
 12.  STARS & SKY     
      
A. ASTRONOMY
       B. CONSTELLATIONS
           INDIAN
           WESTERN
       C. ENMALISP
       D. GREEK ALFA
       E. MID NORTH
       F. NORTH NORTH
       G. STARS
            INDIAN
            WESTERN 
       H. SUN
       I. VIEWER'S VIEW
      J. ZODIAC
 13. VIEWR'S VIEWS
       ABOUT DRVSRS     
       DEVELOPMENT   
       COUNTRY
       FACULTY
       FEED BACK
       INNOVATION
       MANAGEMENT
       MOTIVATION
       MUSIC
       NAMES
       PRODUCTIVITY
       PROFESSION
       QUOTATIONS
       SOFTWARE
       STARS
       TOPICS 
       VIEWER'S VIEWS
       WEB CLASSES
 14. KEY-WORDS
        FAQ   A TO Z
       ANIMATIONS
       FLAGS
       HAPPY
       JOKES
       MELODIES
       QUOTATIONS
 15. DR.VSRS
       A. ABOUT 
       B. ACADEMIC
       C. ACHIEVEMENT
       D. ASSIGNMENTS
       E. ASSISTANCE
       F.
BOOKS
       G. CDB, BARBADOS
       H. CFTC, LONDON
       I. CONTACT          
      J.  FAMILY TREE
       K.  HOME  
       L. INNOVATIONS
       M. ISO 90001:2000
       N. NOBEL 
       O. PRIME PAPERS
       P. QUALITY AUDITOR
       Q. SITE MAP
       R. SOCIAL WORK
       S. VIEWER'S VIEWS
       T. WORLD TRAVEL       
16.  CLOSE  

SPECIALITY

Contact :  Dr.VSRS  

GO TO HOME PAGE

 ANIMATION OF HAPPINESS - CLICK
 JOKES MENU - CLICK    LAUGH
 MATTER  SMART - CLICK
 MELODY MENU - CLICK
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FEATURES

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 A.  ASSISTANCE
 B BOOKS
 F.   
 H.  HELP (FAQ)
  L.    LATEST SITE
  S.  SITE MAP

Contact :   Dr.VSRS

ON THE WEB FROM AUGUST 01, 2001

LAST UPDATE

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DEVELOPMENT
CENTRE
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7

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CLICK & GET DRVSRS TOOL BAR
 TOOL BAR

CIRCLES MENU CIRCLES

 01.FACULTYSHIPS
      ASSOCIATION
      COLLEGE
      CORPORATE
      GOVERNMENT
      INSTITUTIONS
      PRECAUTIONS
      SCHOOLS
      SOCIETIES
      UNIVERSITIES    
      VIEWER'S VIEWS
      WISDOM  
 02. INNOVATION
      A. BIO-CHEMISTRY
      B. ENMALISP
      C. EXAMPLES
      D. MAIN CONCEPTS
      E. MATHEMATICS
      F.  CATALYST - MATHS
      G. MUSIC
      H. COLOUR DISC
       I. ORGANIC
      J.  INORGANIC
      K. PHYSICS

      L. STUDIOUS
      M. VIEWER'S VIEWS

 03. MANAGEMENT 
       A
. ARTILECT  
       B
. BE HAPPY
       C.
CONCEPTS
       D. DETAILS
       E. INDIRA GANDHI
       F. NOBEL
       G. POLI-FINANCE
       H. SLIDE SHOW

 
      I. SUMMARY    
      J. SUPPORTS
      K. VIEWER'S VIEWS  
          MANAGEMENT
          PRODUCTIVITY

 04. MOTIVATION
      A. ARITHMETIC
      B. BESTPEDAL
      C. EPOCH MAKERS
      D. HANDICAPPED
      E. LEADS FOR

          SELF 
          SOCIAL
      F. SELF
MOTIVATION
          EXAMPLES
          DESTRUCTIVE
      G. SOCIAL MOTIVATN

          EXAMPLES
          DESTRUCIVE
  
  H. VIEWER'S VIEWS

 05.   MUSIC 
        
A. ARABIAN
         B. COLOUR CDs
         C. DIATONIC

        
D. EASTERN
        
E. INNOVATION
        
F.
RAGAMS
         G. TEMPERED
        
H. VIEWER'S VIEWS
         I.  WESTERN
         -------------------------- 
 
05A. HEXOCTAL
         A. ADMIRATION
         B. ARABIC
         C. CODE SET
         D. DIATONIC
         E. ENGLISH
         F. GERMAN
         G. HINDI
         H. KARNATAK
         I . KARNATAK KB
        J. MELODY
        K. PRIMARY RAGAM
        L. PUSHTU
        M. SCOTTISH          
        N.  TEMPERED
        O. URUDU    

    
   P. VIEWER'S VIEWS

 06. NEW-CONCEPTS 
     
A. DEVELOPMENT
      B. PHYSICS
 07. PUBLICATIONS    
     
A. ARTICLES
          ECONOMICS
          PRODUCTIVITY
          MANPOWER
          MATERIALS
          RESOURCE
          R & D
          TRAINING
      B. BOOKS
      C. REPEC
      D. SSRN  
 08. QUOTATIONS
       A. WORDS
       B. PICTURES
  
           ANIMALS
           BIOLOGY
           BIRDS
           BOTANICAL
           BUILDINGS
           FLOWERS
           FRUITS
           HISTORICAL
           INSTITUTIONS
           LANDSCAPES
           MONUMENTS 
           NATURE
           PLANTS
           TRANSPORT
           TREES
            SPORTS
            STARS 
      
C. VIEWER'S VIEWS 
 09. SMART-THOUGHTS  
      
A. ALEXANDER
       B. ACHIEVEMENT
       C. ECONOMICS
       D. LION
       E. PHILOSOPHY
       F. SCIENCE
       G. TSUMANI
       H. UNIVERSE

       I. VIEWER'S VIEWS
 10. SOCIO-ECONOMIC
       A. ARTILECT        
       B. BUSH

      
C. CONCEPTS
       D DETAILS
       E. INDIRA GANDHI
       F. NOBEL
       G. POLI-FINANCE
       H. SLIDE SHOW
       
I. SUMMARY          
      J. SUPPORTS
      K. VIEWER'S VIEW   
 11. SOFTWARE (SW)
       A. APPLICATION
      
B. ARTILECT 
       C. BOOTING       
    
  D. CORPORATE
       E. DESIGNS
       F. HARDARE
       G. JOB SW
       H. OP.SYSTEM
       I. ORGANISATION SW
      J. SW QUALITY
      K. SW UTILITY
      L. UTILITY SW
      M
. VIEWER'S VIEW      
 12.  STARS & SKY     
      
A. ASTRONOMY
       B. CONSTELLATIONS
           INDIAN
           WESTERN
       C. ENMALISP
       D. GREEK ALFA
       E. MID NORTH
       F. NORTH NORTH
       G. STARS
            INDIAN
            WESTERN 
       H. SUN
       I. VIEWER'S VIEW
      J. ZODIAC
 13. VIEWR'S VIEWS
       ABOUT DRVSRS     
       DEVELOPMENT   
       COUNTRY
       FACULTY
       FEED BACK
       INNOVATION
       MANAGEMENT
       MOTIVATION
       MUSIC
       NAMES
       PRODUCTIVITY
       PROFESSION
       QUOTATIONS
       SOFTWARE
       STARS
       TOPICS 
       VIEWER'S VIEWS
       WEB CLASSES
 14. KEY-WORDS
        FAQ   A TO Z
       ANIMATIONS
       FLAGS
       HAPPY
       JOKES
       MELODIES
       QUOTATIONS
 15. DR.VSRS
       A. ABOUT 
       B. ACADEMIC
       C. ACHIEVEMENT
       D. ASSIGNMENTS
       E. ASSISTANCE
       F.
BOOKS
       G. CDB, BARBADOS
       H. CFTC, LONDON
       I. CONTACT          
      J.  FAMILY TREE
       K.  HOME  
       L. INNOVATIONS
       M. ISO 90001:2000
       N. NOBEL 
       O. PRIME PAPERS
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POLITICAL WIZARD IN FUND DISTRIBUTION JOBSOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
A POLITICO - FINANCIAL OVERVIEW

 Published in The ICFI Journal of
Managerial Economics
  ICFAI University, Hyderabad, India. February 2005. Pages 12 to 28

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                            Go To Matter     SHOPPING
  1.   Politico-Historical Background   2.Socio-Economic Facets
  3.   Management Methods   3A. Capitalist Approach 
  3B. Communist Approach 4. Closed Cycle Economics 
  5.   Prime Component       6.   World Experiences.     
  7. Politico-Financial Overview. 
  8. Communism - A Survival Analysis     

                               Go To Figures
  1. Corporate Financial Schematic in a Capitalist setup
  2. Corporate Financial Schematic in a Communist setup
  3. Three Dimensional Closed Cycle Economics
  4. Manpower and Productivity Correlation Schematic

KEY WORDS
Accounting System, Communist, Capitalist, Financial Methods, Infrastructure, Manpower, Materials, Information Systems, Political, Techno-commercial

JEL CLASSIFICATIONS
A13, B41, E65, F43, J58, O23, P12, P21  

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Do Financial accounting practices as per the political set-up and their administrative strategies, pose problems to the pace of Socio-economic development of any nation?

This paper addresses this question with a preview to the dawn of human civilisations on earth, and mathematically cumulating the thoughts of Socio-economic development in four facets from Individual to National level. The primary aspect of Socio-economic development, which needs to be measured correctly and monitored properly, is the status of prosperity and degree of progress of a nation. This is represented by the Gross domestic product (GDP), devoid of Foreign Assistance. Different Financial Management Techniques are used under the two divergent political set-ups, namely the Capitalism and the Communism, towards the assessment of GDP. 

A Capitalist set-up represents an approach to Socio-economic development through cumulating the contributions by the individual Corporate and Government units, towards a macro level GDP. A capitalist setup provides the freedom of corporate control under each individual entrepreneur or a corporate unit ( I ), under private or government control (G), to function as an autonomous body. These units could function towards their self goals, using the "Return on Investment" as their motivating guideline.

A communist set-up represents a centralised approach to the macro level GDP through individual work contributions at micro level. Under this set-up, the national demand is pre-assessed and fixed by the State. The factors and the facilities of production are provided by the State. The financial management is taken care by the State Bank. The individual households and the society is left only with the responsibility of converting the material resources into planned outputs at socially acceptable quality and economically justifiable costs, through efficient techno-commercial production techniques. Thus, a communist set-up represents a centralised approach to macro level GDP through individual work contributions at micro level.

These financial overviews lead to the conclusion that irrespective of the political set-up, the Socio-economic development is a Three Dimensional Closed Cycle Economic process. This process is a function of the optimum utilisation of Manpower, Materials and Techno-commercial infrastructure, in a pre-set Seven Sequential order. Of these, the Manpower is the Prime component. It should be supported by adequate Infrastructure Systems, and Performance Feed back. The Politico-Financial overview infers that the Cost and Quality of Domestic goods and services, decide the status of Socio-economic development. This directly depends upon the proper utilisation pattern of the three ingredients and the Productivity orientation of the Prime component (Manpower). A nation should select the appropriate political infrastructure, which will aid the faster achievement of the Cost reduction and Quality improvement objectives, and better adaptable to the local households, at any point of time. A forced or wrongly introduced political infrastructure is bound to destroy this objective, and introduce a negative dimension to the Pattern of Socio-economic development. The world experiences  support the Closed Cycle Economic process.

Between 1760 and 1860 the "British Empire" pioneered their Socio-economic development, by practicing a "Monarchical Capitalism", which had the characteristic similarities with Communism. The Ruler (King or Queen) represented the State. All the needs and welfare of the society was taken care by the Ruler. Individuals do not have any freedom or had no authority to participate in any decision process. The system took care of the needs and aspirations of the domestic Manpower in Britain, but not those in their colonies. The result was that Britain had to award independence to the colonies, one by one, and dilute the Monarchical Capitalism to Conservative Capitalism and Labour capitalism, existing today in the British Parliament.

The United States of America in the West, reached a fully developed status in 1900, using a Capitalist approach. This approach continues  as a "Democratic Capitalism" or the "Republican Capitalism" in the Federal Government, even in the current Millennium (2000s). It is not the simple Capitalist approach which motivates their forward progress, but their approach towards the Management and Control of the Prime component, namely the Manpower, with a progressive Research / Development in the area of Materials and Techno-commercial systems, in the Government sectors as well as among the private entrepreneurs.

Germany reached a developed status in 1910, as an unified nation, through a Mixed approach. But the World War 2, which ended in 1945, divided the Germany into 2, to practice Capitalism in the Western side and Communism in the Eastern side, on either side of the great wall of Berlin ( 13th August 1961 ). During late 1900s, the Communist Germany in the Eastern side dwindled down in the Socio-economic set-up, broke the wall ( 9th November 1989 ), and merged with the Capitalist Germany in the Western side. East Germany was progressing well with Communist principles. But their development status continued from 1910 up to a point in 1989, till the needs and the aspirations of the Prime component, namely Manpower was satisfied to a Socially acceptable level.

Russia in the East reached a fully developed status in 1950, using the Communist approach. But in late 1900s ( December 31, 1991), the Communist dominated largest continent USSR (Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics), dwindled into pieces of several smaller nations, each diluting their Communist principles (full State control), towards Private entrepreneur-ship as well as associations and collaborations with the Capitalist dominated Western USA. It is Communism which provided a push for the forward progress for Russia, and kept the great nation together. Their development status continued from 1950 up to a point, till the needs and the aspirations of the Prime component, namely Manpower was satisfied to a Socially acceptable level.

India was under British Rule from late 1800s till mid 1947 ( August 15, 1947 ), and enjoyed the Developed Socio-economic status of their care taker (ruler), under a Monarchical Capitalism. But after independence, the united Manpower formed groups of individual characteristics and aspirations (Based on Religion & Cast, Rural & Urban, Labour & Capitalist, Agriculture & Industry, Poor & Rich etc.. ). The ruling Government also continues to support and encourages these group divisions even today, nearly 69 years after independence. These approaches have inducted a non-returnable trend to unite and meet the aspirations of all and divergent Prime Manpower component, without keeping pace in Cost-benefit approaches in the prime sectors (Food, Clothing and Housing), and a slow pace in  Materials and Technological innovations, even though large sums are spent to reach an advanced growth level in elegant sectors (Atomic power, Space exploration etc...). With a high rate of population growth and majority below the poverty-line, India is dwindling between a "Developing" and "Under-developed" Socio-economic status, scuffing gradually towards Under-development. The Government from Village to Central level, the Political parties, the Corporate set-up in private and government control, and all the individuals in India are providing full-scale incentives and support to this downward slide, by keeping their individual gains in a micro level as more important,   than the macro level national development. Now, as a result, India has turned as a source to provide the top quality Prime component Manpower to all the developed nations, without any infrastructure to utilise them in-house effectively, inadequacy in all essential needs,  and inefficiency / corruption in the government services.

In short, the development orientation of any nation is independent of the Politico- Financial set-up, and could progress and upgrade themselves into a higher strata of Development, either by a Capitalist or Communist approach. Hence, the nation should select the appropriate and simple political structure, and financial summary techniques, that will assist the evaluation and monitoring the three input components, and provide the development oriented feed back to the Prime component (Manpower), at any point of time. Finally, this approach is expected to bring the heavenly happiness down to the earth, to these nations.

GO TOP
POLITICAL WIZARD IN FUND DISTRIBUTION JOB================================================
  
f  =  Function of    SIGMA =  Sigma ( Summation )
===========================================
1. PHILOSO-HISTORICAL BACKGROUND.

Of the 4,500 million years and more of Earth,s existence, almost nothing is known about the conditions during the first 100 million years, before its crust consolidated. The historians relying on archaeological discoveries and written records from ancient civilisations could reach only 6,000 years of the past. But geologists, based on rocks, fossilised relics of plants and animals could reconstruct the past in considerable detail, for about 600 million years backward. They have grouped the history into 16 brackets, starting from Pre-Cambrian age in Proterozoic period with sea weeds and invertebrate animals, to Holocene age in Cenozoic period with the origin of human beings, about 10,000 years ago.

According to the Holy Bible, "And the Lord God formed man out of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul" (Genesis 2:7). According to Holy Quran, "God created Jinn and Mankind, only to worship Him" (51 : 56). Between 8th and 7th century B.C. when Hindu Aryans dominated India, and sage Kapila propounded the theory of creation in his "Innovative Aphorism" (Chanakya Suthras). According to this, the universe was evolved out of an un-manifested, undifferentiated, infinite and eternal primordial ground, known as "Prakrithi". This existed in a status of perfect equilibrium between "Energy" ( Turbulent status ) and "Mass" ( Inert status ). A transcendental effect caused a commotion between the two, and the action of Mass-Energy inter transfer started. This commotion created five basic characteristics and generated atoms of different character domination. These atoms combined in multiple patterns, to generate different animate and inanimate universe, leading towards intelligent human species.

The dawn of organised human civilisation on Earth, their thoughts and actions towards better living conditions could be traced in Africa, Egypt, India and Mesopotamia. The functional thoughts of these primate tribes of the world, pioneered the development and propagation of Socio-economic development motivations in the whole world.

2. SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACETS.

Accumulation of work and an aptitude to live-together among the ancient households originated the group formation to collect, store, and utilise the common resources. A visit and survey of the Socio-economic environments in the lands of intellectual forefathers of mankind exhibits four logical facets.

  • A Biological facet to solve the scarcity of material and natural resources, essential for human life. This mainly involved, human to nature relationship.

  • A Psychological facet to satisfy the ego and the id of the component individuals. This originated the social aspect of life. This also involved human to nature relationship.

  • A Social facet involving joint administrative techniques to improve the conditions of living. The economic thoughts originated in this phase.

  • An Administrative facet, to properly control and monitor the resources, in order to meet the needs of a large volume society. This resulted in a relationship between the social groups and the State, which acquired the power to control the groups.

It is evident that the motivating factor behind the development of these four facets was the "quantum of human population". These facets always advanced in a forward direction directly proportional to the population quantum. Currently it stands at a Socio-economic facet,  embracing all the above four facets.

In line with the advancement of these facets, progressively, the individuals ( I ) merged with the groups ( G ), groups merged with the society ( S ), and the society merged with the nation ( N ), in a forward direction. Mathematically, it could be represented as below :

         1 to p SIGMA I = G.     1 to q SIGMAG = S.    1 to r SIGMA S = N    

for a given Population volume - p, Group units - q and the Social classes - r.

This shows a progressive merger of micro individual ( I ) with a macro nation
( N ) thr
POLITICAL WIZARD IN FUND DISTRIBUTION JOBough a trilateral integration.

3. MANAGEMENT METHOD.

The welfare and self satisfaction of the members of any society ( S ) in the world was limited to the accessibility and availability of the resources by their component group members ( G ). In order to meet their unsatisfied demands, each society exchanged their materials with others, through a bilateral "Barter" deal. But when the societies merged into a nation ( N ), their high volume demands and the indivisible characteristics of the "bartered materials" warranted a common medium of exchange. This common medium started with precious metals and currently taken the shape of the "Currency". Currency now plays the major role to measure all the aspects of the Socio-economic development.

The primary aspect of Socio-economic development, which needs to be measured correctly and monitored properly, is the status of prosperity and degree of progress of a nation.

This is a function of the productive utilisation of the available resources, measured in local currencies at local prices. In order to aid international comparisons, this is cumulated at national level as the "Gross Domestic Product (GDP)", and converted into indices at constant prices, with reference to a standard year. GDP is the sum of Gross Domestic consumption and Gross Domestic investment, free from foreign assistance. It is computed and Presented from the financial flow pattern of each of the domestic sectors. Even though the agricultural and infrastructure sectors are not so well organised like corporate commercial sectors, common financial techniques could be applied to aid the computation of GDP.

The basis to compute and present the GDP, is the summary of financial flow in each of the domestic sectors. This flow in the world follow two distinct patterns, depending upon the politico-economic policy of the nation. In a free economy "Believing in freedom of thought and right of private judgement" ( Samuel Adams, 1722-1803, One of America's founding father, Speech on August 1,1776, USA ), the "Capitalist" pattern is used. An economy believing in "Yearning for equal division of unequal earnings" ( Ebenezer 1781-1849, British Poet and Politician, Elliot, Epigram), the "Communist" pattern is used. Non-aligned and Socialist nations use a mixture of these two patterns, applying the Capitalist method for private sectors, and Communist method to national sectors, with appropriate moderation.

The financial management methodology monitors the pace and pattern of Socio-economic development, as a progress feedback tool. United States of America reached a fully developed status in 1900, using a Capitalist approach. This was followed by France and Germany in 1910. Using Mixed approaches Sweden reached a fully developed status in 1930, and Japan in 1940. Canada and Russia reached a fully developed status in 1950, using the Capitalist and Communist approaches respectively. The late developers were able to speed up their pace, utilising the experiences of the early developers under the two methods. Hence, it is worth diagnosing these two divergent politico-economic techniques.

3A. CAPITALIST APPROACH.

A capitalist set-up provides the freedom of corporate control under each individual entrepreneur ( I ), or a corporate unit under private or government control (G), to function as an autonomous body. These units could function towards their self goals, using the "Return on Investment" as their motivating guideline, as shown in Figure-1, shemating the various components in its financial flow.

The return is through the leverage for "Profit". This is the financial surplus generated from a free market "Sale" of commodities and services, over their "Costs". The costs are made up of manufacturing , administrative and selling components. If the cost of operation exceeds the sales revenue, and the result is a "Loss" leading to a negative return on investment. This aspect of operation of the corporate sector is shown in the "Income Statement".

The investment is the sum of a "Fixed" component comprising movable and immovable assets, and a "Working" component, representing the Net current or Liquid assets. The Current assets are made up of the tangible components belonging to the sector, and the Current liabilities are what the sector owes to others. The difference between the Current assets and the Current liabilities, is the working capital component. This aspect of the operation of the corporate sector is shown in the "Balance Sheet".

Rate of return on Investment,  represented by a percentage of Profit to the Total investment, motivates a corporate sector to operate towards an "Optimum" profit at a "Possibly low" level of investment. However, the fiscal and social controls of the capital, political environment, as well as the competition existing in a free market, direct the corporate units to provide a socially acceptable quality, and economically justifiable prices to their products and services.

In order to asses the compliance of the norms and standards applicable to the corporate sectors, the Capitalist nations insist on the submission of a published "Annual Report". This is in two documented forms as "Income Statement", covering the Income, Expenses and the Profit or Loss; and Balance sheet covering the Assets and Liabilities, for each year of operation.

Thus, a Capitalist set-up represents an approach to Socio-economic development through the cumulating the contributions made by the Corporate and Government units, towards a macro level GDP.

3B. COMMUNIST APPROACH.

A centralised State operation of all aspects of a corporate organisation represents a diametrically opposite approach, namely the Communist method. Under this environment, "When the State exists, there is no Freedom; and when there is Freedom, there is no State" (Nikolai Lenin, 1870-1924, Revolutionist and the first leader of the Soviet Union, "The State and Revolution"). In this methodology, the micro level individual ( I ), the Group ( G ) and the Social identity ( S ) are merged with a macro level national identity ( N ). The integrated individual ( I ) hence assumes the role of an "input" resource towards the GDP, than a person to decide the pattern of his or her contribution to GDP.

This approach introduces the dimension of an "aggregate" demand for a group of commodities or services to be traded in a fixed market at fixed prices ( Maurice Dobb, 1900-1976, British born Marxian Economist , "Soviet economic Development since 1917")  In this situation, all the planned commodities are produced and distributed through aggregate supply points, sufficiently large enough to reduce the number of varieties, and the design diversities, within the technical conditions of production.  (In USSR, during the First Five year plan period, only 3 tractor plants were commissioned to produce a very narrow model ranges. During the Second Five year plan period, only 4 types of tractors were produced, compared to 80 different types in USA, during the same period)

This situation warrants a different approach to corporate financial management, as shown in Figure-2. Because the production is planned in aggregate, the bulk investments and supplies are taken care by the State, the output products or services are channeled to fixed market at pre-determined prices.

The cost of goods or services is computed as sum of the following :

  • In case of heavy industries, the normal expenditure comprises 80% of in-process stock, and 20% of finished goods stock; and in case of other industries 100% of the total stock.

  • Expense component towards the use of capital equipment.
    (Corresponding to depreciation in a Capitalist set-up).

  • Input materials.

  • Excess expenditure made up of 20% of in-process stock and 50% of finished goods stock from heavy industries, absorbed and provided by the State Bank.

If the trade income is surplus over the total cost, then it contributes to the working capital in the form of cash and inventory to the corporate sector. A portion of cash is reserved towards the use of capital equipment and its subsequent replacement. The excess cash over the normal expenditure represents the "Profit", which goes into the State treasury.

If the cost of goods or services exceeds the revenue from the trade operation, then the "Loss" is absorbed by the State Bank as an excess expenditure.

Under this set-up, the national demand is pre-assessed and fixed by the State. The factors and the facilities of production are provided by the State. The financial management is taken care by the State Bank. The individual households and the society is left only with the responsibility of converting the material resources into planned outputs at socially acceptable quality and economically justifiable costs, through efficient techno-commercial production techniques. Thus, a communist set-up represents a centralised approach to macro level GDP through individual work contributions at micro level.

4. CLOSED CYCLE ECONOMICS.

A comparative review of the productive activities that control the financial flow in a Capitalist set-up as in Figure-1, and in a Communist set-up as in Figure-2, infers the presence of a common economic cycle. It is in a pre-set pattern with seven steps as shown in Figure-3.

  1. The first step is the demand for goods and services from individual households for consumables, and capital items from corporate sectors. These needs are converted into deliverable outputs by the Research and Development activity.

  2. The second step is to locate and augment the sources for basic materials from infrastructure units, through purchase manpower.

  3. The third step is to plan for the raw and semi-finished materials, control them through proper inventory systems, and process them through appropriate production process, manned and managed through appropriate Manpower Management systems.

  4. The fourth step is the Engineering and Technological conversion process through appropriate machinery, infrastructure and parts, utilising the operating and maintenance manpower.

  5. The result is the fifth step is the finished product or services, transported and delivered by the handling manpower. The handling and warehousing operations are optimised through Operations Research Models.

  6. The products and services in the sixth step reach the users, after proper packing through the forwarding media and marketing channels.

  7. The last and seventh step in the cycle is the consumption of materials and services, distributed and accounted by the financial and personnel manpower. These operations are managed and optimised through Cost-benefit and Management Information systems.

This consumption in turn, links the cycle back to the demand generation in Step-01.

The above seven sequential steps confirm a Closed Cycle Economics operating in all the nation, irrespective of their political pattern, controlled by three resource dimensions. They are, Manpower, Materials, and Techno-commercial systems. In each of these steps, these three components are existing in different forms, as shown in Figure-3. This cycle controls and monitors the Domestic consumption and Domestic investments, and hence the GDP.

  1. Manpower component, in a capitalist set-up are "Self contributory", through individual or group level corporate units, motivated by the necessity to survive and develop in a free economy.
    In a communist set-up, the Manpower in the form of Social groups are conglomerated, trained and disciplined to provide their optimum productive contributions to a macro level State.

  2. Materials in a Capitalist set-up are procured and sold under a competitive market condition at variable prices, by independent producers to the users.
    In a Communist set-up, they are pooled, standardised, procured and distributed in bulk quantities, by the State.

  3. The Techno-commercial development in a Capitalist set-up is at Individual, Group, Corporate and at State level, with freedom and autonomy. In a communist set-up, it is the exclusive responsibility of the State.

Hence, irrespective of the political set-up and the financial techniques used in any nation, the Socio-economic development D is a function of manpower P, Materials M, and Techno-commercial systems T. This could be mathematically expressed as,

D = f ( P , M ,T )

Manpower is influenced by the Social infrastructure, Materials by the economic conditions, and Techno-commercial development by the Research and Development activities at Individual, Corporate and National levels.

5. PRIME COMPONENT.

POLITICAL WIZARD IN FUND DISTRIBUTION JOBThe Closed Cycle Economics in Figure-3, highlight the fact that Manpower serves as a direct intangible input, as well as it controls and monitors the input Materials, Techno-commercial systems, and the throughput Production process. Also, Manpower as Consumers, play the role of demand generator, and as a cost adder to the goods by its work contribution. Manpower plays a dual role in the Socio-economic process. Hence, the prime component in this cycle is the "Manpower".

The Manpower productivity assumes a multi-dimensional role in a Nation's economy, irrespective of whether the approach is Capitalist or Communist. My doctoral research work in the University of Bombay (Jamnalal Bajaj Institute of Management Studies, Bombay, India) during 1971-1975 established the following on the correlation between the Manpower and Corporate productivity.

  1. In case of corporate units with Materials inputs exceeding 55% of the cost of production or services, the Manpower talents are unproductive, if there are no organised Materials Management Systems. This is because, any level of efficient Manpower cannot procure, process and deliver the materials if the Inventory Management Systems are inadequate. Hence, the manpower efforts will fail to produce the desired Cost-benefit effect.

  2. In corporate unit of Techno intensive nature with the technological investments controlling the quality and quantity of outputs to an extent over 55%, the manpower efforts are unproductive if the Production and Maintenance information Systems are inefficient. In these cases, the work of productive manpower cannot control the cost, nor deliver any quality output due to inadequate technology.

  3. In case of commercial corporate units, where the methodology and efficiency controls the cost of outputs over 55%, the manpower becomes unproductive, if the Management Information Systems are inadequate. The reason is due to lack of timely and accurate information for productive decisions, and efficiency improvement guidelines.

  4. Even if the materials management, technical and commercial information systems are satisfactory, the manpower could become unproductive, if there are no satisfactory Manpower performance Appraisal system to evaluate, feed back, train, and reward the corporate personnel. This is true because Manpower is an intangible and prime component in any productive operation, depends greatly on timely feed back for continued improvement.

These aspects of manpower are summarised in Figure-4. As seen from this figure, the intangible manpower could produce any productive output, only if both the tangible and intangible systems in the corporate sectors are adequately strengthened.

6. WORLD EXPERIENCES.

  1. UK Between 1760 and 1860 the Prime Component in Socio-Economic development, namely Manpower contributed to a number of revolutionary inventions in Agriculture, Industry and Automation process in Europe. As a result, the European nations pioneered the Socio-economic development drive, through an "Individual Capitalist" approach, as early as 1800s. The advantageous beneficiary of this process was the Britain. The ruling community oriented the local system into a "Monarchical Capitalism" and developed the nation into a "British Empire". This had a characteristic similarities with Communism. The Ruler (King or Queen) represented the State. All the needs and welfare of the society was taken care by the Ruler. Individuals do not have any freedom or had no authority to participate in any decision process.

This represents a Communist approach to Capitalism. The Monarch utilised the latest technology, best quality and cheap Materials and Manpower from the "Colonial" or slave nations. The system took care of the needs and aspirations of the domestic Manpower in Britain, but not those in the colonies. It worked well in 1800s. In 1900s the Prime component Manpower in the colonies, contributing to the work and prosperity of the Empire, revolted.

The result was that Britain had to award independence to the colonies, one by one, and dilute the Monarchical Capitalism to Conservative Capitalism and Labour capitalism, existing today in the British Parliament. This changed Britain into an United Kingdom ( UK ). But the acquired Socio-economic development continues its status, because of the proper management of domestic Manpower, Materials, and Technology.

  1. USA United States of America in the West, reached a fully developed status in 1900, using a Capitalist approach. This approach continues even today, as a "Democratic Capitalism" or the "Republican Capitalism" in the Federal Government. In the current Millennium (2000s) USA dominates the power in the whole world, and continues to upgrade the domestic Socio-economic development.

It is not the simple Capitalist approach which motivates their forward progress, but their approach towards the Management and Control of the Prime component, namely the Manpower. This is supported further, through a progressive Research / Development in the area of Materials and Techno-commercial systems, in the Government sectors as well as among the private entrepreneurs.

  1. GERMANY Germany reached a developed status in 1910, as an unified nation, through a Mixed approach. But the World War 2, which ended in 1945, divided the Germany into 2, to practice Capitalism in the Western side and Communism in the Eastern side, on either side of  the great wall of Berlin (13th August 1961 ). During late 1900s, the Communist Germany in the Eastern side dwindled down in the Socio-economic set-up, broke the wall ( 9th November 1989 ), and merged with the Capitalist Germany in the Western side.

East Germany was progressing well with Communist principles. Manpower was considered only an input resource and not as an innovative contributor. But their development status continued from 1910 up to a point in 1989, till the needs and the aspirations of the Prime component, namely Manpower was satisfied to a Socially acceptable level.  The reason for their merger with the West Germany is similar to what happened in Russia, explained below.

  1. RUSSIA Russia in the East reached a fully developed status in 1950, using the Communist approach. But in late 1900s, the Communist dominated largest continent USSR ( Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics. Formed in 1922 with Russia + other 14 Communist countries in Europe and North Asia), dwindled into pieces of several smaller nations ( Officially dissolved on 31st December 1991 ), each diluting their Communist principles (full State control), towards Private entrepreneurship, as well as associations and collaborations with the Capitalist dominated Western USA.

It is Communism which provided a push for the forward progress for Russia, and kept the great nation together. But, the Research and Development in the area of Materials and Technology were not keeping pace with the development in the world. The Prime component Manpower was considered only an input resource and not as an innovative contributor. Inspite this, their development status continued from 1950 up to a point, till the needs and the aspirations of the Prime component, namely Manpower was satisfied to a Socially acceptable level. When this large State reached a break-even point, and was not able to cope with the expanding needs and aspirations of their domestic Manpower, the groups broke into pieces, formatting themselves into smaller nations, that could meet the same.

  1. INDIA India was under British Rule from late 1800s till mid 1947 and enjoyed the Developed Socio-economic status of their care taker (ruler), under a Monarchical Capitalism. But after independence, the united Manpower formed groups of individual characteristics and aspirations (Based on Religion & Cast, Rural & Urban, Labour & Capitalist, Agriculture & Industry, Poor & Rich etc.. based). The ruling Government also continues to support and encourages these group divisions even today, nearly 57 years after independence, and offers divided privileges in education, food supply, electricity rates, employment opportunities etc.. (According to me, it is a legalised Apartheid). The nation follows a Democratic Capitalism in Agricultural and Industrial area, to provide innovation and competition. A State controlled Democratic Communism is applied to service sectors like Transportation (Railway), Communication (Postal / Telephones), Banking etc.. on a monopoly basis and without any Cost-benefit approach to the public. Continued and progressive nationalisation of Industrial sectors are also in progress.

These approaches have inducted a non-returnable trend to unite and meet the aspirations of all the Prime Manpower component, without keeping pace in Cost-benefit approaches in the prime sectors (Food, Clothing and Housing), and non-concern to Materials and Technological innovations to keep pace with the world,   even though large sums are spent to reach an advanced growth level in elegant sectors (Atomic power, Space exploration etc...).

The dissatisfied domestic working Manpower has take the law in their hand, feel that going on strike, paralysing  the work of essential / emergency sectors,  destroying public property, subjecting the public to inconvenience etc... are their fundamental rights. Political parties too encourage such vandalism, use them as a leverage to gain popularity votes and capture the national administrative power in their hand to gain their self-interests.

With a high rate of population growth and majority below the poverty-line, India is dwindling between a "Developing" and "Under-developed" Socio-economic status, scuffing gradually towards Under-development. The Government from Village to Central level, the Political parties, the Corporate set-up in private and government control, and all the individuals in India are providing full-scale incentives and support to this downward slide, by keeping their individual gains in a micro level as more important, than the macro level national development. Now, as a result, India has turned as a source to provide the top quality Prime component Manpower to all the developed nations,  without any infrastructure to utilise them in-house effectively, inadequacy in all essential needs,  and inefficiency / corruption in the government services. 

7. POLITICO-FINANCIAL OVERVIEW.

POLITICAL WIZARD IN FUND DISTRIBUTION JOBThe planning, utilisation and control of Manpower, Materials, and Techno-commercial systems in any nation, monitor the Cost as well as the Quality aspects of the domestic goods and services. Lesser the costs and better the quality of domestic goods and services, the Socio-economic development process could be faster. This realisation is two fold, first through the availability of domestic goods and services at Socially acceptable quality and at Economically justifiable costs to the domestic households, which will induce higher standard of living among a large volume population; and next through the opportunity to compete effectively in the international market, to improve the Export capabilities.

A nation should select the appropriate political infrastructure, which will aid the faster achievement of the Cost reduction and Quality improvement objectives, and better adaptable to the local households, at any point of time. A forced or wrongly introduced political infrastructure is bound to destroy this objective, and introduce a negative dimension to the Pattern of Socio-economic development.

Financial representation and appraisal of the productive aspects of any nation plays a vital role to asses the current development status, and provide guidelines for the future development strategy. A simple and easily understandable financial methodology should be adopted, depending upon whether the Socio-economic development responsibility is cumulated from micro level Individuals upwards, or vested solely with the macro level State. In both options, the Manpower as a prime component should be supported by adequate Tangible and Intangible Infrastructure systems, and a feed back oriented Manpower Performance Appraisal System.

As Ruskin (English writer, Art critic and Social reformer 1819-1900) said in his Eagle's Nest, "People are always expecting to get peace in heaven. But you know whatever peace they get there will be ready made. Whatever making of peace they can be best for, must be on the Earth here" (Lecture ix). The peace and prosperity on our earth is decided by our Socio-economic development. It is "built" by appropriate Political infrastructure, and monitored by proper Financial management techniques.

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************************************************************                FIGURE - 1
FIGURE-1            
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  FIGURE - 2
 FIGURE-2            
  Source : Collected and Schematised by the Author DR.VSRS on an R & D tour to USSR
    in 1984 May 
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                FIGURE - 3
   FIGURE-3

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           FIGURE - 4
         MANPOWER AND PRODUCTIVITY CORRELATION SCHEMATIC
     PHDCONCEPT

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                                                  Thesis supported By
   A) 7 Publications.  B) 5 Seminar Presentations.
   C) 3 Open Discussion sessions, with Question/Answer & Review.
   D) 2 Faculty Colloquium.
   E) Randomly sampled / Normally distributed sectarian survey to provide a least-
        error probability.
   F) Pre-test of the hypothesis in 3 representative sectors.
  
G) Evaluation by the University / Local Management Experts and a Professor
        in Management from a Foreign accredited University  [Manchester Business
       School, UK].
   H) Expert Group Viva Voce ( Examination and Review ).

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8. COMMUNISM - A SURVIVAL ANALYSIS
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"MRN Professional & Practitioner Paper Series"

PREFACE
Why Communism has not survived ? Is it possible to introduce the dimensions of eternality for its revival ? These need thought provoking and a deep-sea dimensional analysis. Hence, it is bound the boggle the mind of the person who asked the question, and who ventures to answer it.  This should have been analysed and answered in the 17th or 18th century. Then the whole world should have functioned in an entirely different politico-social infrastructure  !! I feel it is worth to have this analysis in the archive of this 21st century bibliographic collections, to help many developing & under developed nations (which are “still” having a strong faith in the “ancient” Communism), to formulate an appropriate strategy to “Accelerate the pace of their socio-economic development” !!!
SUMMARY
Human generation try to fit into a 3 dimensional survival concept comprising the environment/geography, economic and social dimensions, over centuries and their pedigree progress under these guidelines.  Because of the divergent level of survival targets in the economic and social strata by each human being, wealth accumulation flows unequally among the people. Industrial revolution mechanised the human work, with cost reduction and quality/volume optimization and planted Capitalism in the world, creating a wedge in the wealth accumulation process. This inducted a class war between the owners of wealth versus the workers,  hired and fired by them. Competition made the capitalist to realise the importance of labour and diluted the concept as “Socialism”.
The disproportionate wealth accumulation among people seeded the concept of communism in the world. Communism originated by Marx in Germany, spread to Russia and was promoted by Lenin. Both assumed that the large volume of people in the world belong to the low wealth possessing worker class, will revolt towards equal wealth share, and Communism shall dominate the whole world soon. But both Marx and Lenin were “Social revolutionists” and lacked “futuristic management thoughts” on how the shared wealth will be recycled to grow more and result  in  prosperity to the equally share population ? With this limited thought, the USSR (1922)  and the East Germany (GDR-1961) and were created,  with the entire wealth of the nation pooled on the apex “State”, representing the entire population.  The state   became   a monopoly and all the people were simple labourers, without any self possessions. The state utilised the labour like a commodity, without any motivation to use their original ideas and any incentive to improve the productive contribution spirit. As a result, the GDR collapsed in 1989 and the USSR dwindled in 1991, bringing an end  to  the  69 year old Communist concept. Also both started   promoting  the  diametrically  opposite Capitalist approach and established cooperation with the (imperialist) USA.
Communism could have survived and continued as a guide for wealth and prosperity for all the nations in the world,   if the domestic population was considered as “superior” to the “state”. The national wealth owned by the “State” should have been invested in sectorial projects and entrusted to optimum group of people to work, manage and encouraged to meet a targeted sale. State should have met all needs of these   groups of people. A reasonable share of the net gains should have been distributed in equal proportion to all, as an incentive. Below targets  and loss should have been questioned with corrective action. In addition, the productivity and  management decision should have been oriented towards ‘socio-economic Development units”. The domestic investment should be made from domestic savings and domestic technology should be manned by domestic labour.

A)   SURVIVAL & THE  PEDIGREE
Charles Darwin (1809-1882), British naturalist, revolutionised the science of biology by his demonstration of "evolution by natural selection". In 19th Century, he pondered over the survival and extinction of biological species. He said "Survival of the Fittest" alone inducts any species to grow and continue to survive in any given geographical and environmental infrastructure in the world. (Note  : He  did not say “Survival of the Biggest, Fastest, Healthiest, Mightiest, Smartest or Toughest” etc.. !!).  He inferred that the organism that best “fits” into its environment, puts up with sufferings, adjusts and continues to progress, had the best chance of survival in the world.

Human species are very well a part of this survival concept on the earth. However, human beings are provided with an additional attribute of intelligence. Hence, they have acquired an extra “economic” and “social” survival dimension.  This is in addition to the natural environmental and physical magnitude, shared in common with all other species.
All human beings, hence try to fit into a 3 dimensional survival concept namely the (a) the geography and environment (b) the social status and (c) the economic infrastructure.
Within these frames of reference, all the species in the earth build and protect their pedigree (family tree), to grow and flourish over the centuries.
B) SOCIO-ECONOMIC STRATA
The human generation over the past many millennium aimed, worked and fitted themselves into certain mixture of   socio-economic level saturations.
1) To get the basic needs only (food, shelter and clothing) for the day to day survival. (Category – C. Least effort economic survival).

2) Acquire, store and hoard the basic needs for a limited future period.   
    (Category – B1. Lower level effort economic survival).
3) Enhance the comforts by acquiring the luxury needs, in addition to the
    basic needs (Category – B. Medium effort economic survival).
Only certain human beings apply the “extra” economic and social concepts of “Intelligence” and “Risk taking”, for certain escalated   economic and social acquisitions as below
4) Invent new ideas, gadgets, social motivational techniques and technical processes, to attain a “Human Leadership” in the world. All actors, politicians, scientists, sports men etc… belong to this group. (Category – A1. Higher  Social + Economic survival).

5) Take risk by sacrificing the acquired and hoarded wealth in (b) and (c) above, towards an “Economic Leadership”.  Business men, Gamblers, Investors, Producers (Entertainment, Products or Process), Traders etc.. format   this set of people. (Category – A. Highest  economic  survival  with Social   leadership  as a by-product).
Inference – Wealth and economic prosperity of an individual is directly proportional to their objects and efforts, classified as C,B1,B,A1,A  above. Hence the wealth accumulation cannot be equal in any nation among all social strata, because each try to fit in one of the groups A to C and continue to survive.
Note – The basic human tendency is never to share the self wealth with others, but share other’s wealth wherever possible,  for the  individuals in all the above classifications C,B1,B,A1,A !!
C) CAPITALISM - WEALTH DIVIDER
Human generation from Stone age, analysed the continuity of their self existence, and formed groups. These developed into societies. The basic needs of these societies were food, shelter and clothing. Sub groups of the society members decided to work exclusively for each need, and produced agricultural products for food, cotton based garments for clothing and wood/earthen structures for shelter. This included the construction of wooden carts dragged by bulls or horses, for transportation. All these materials and the animal were under the superiority of human, the master behind them. In this ancient world environment, there were no  significant variation in the wealth or “economic richness” between people.
The industrial revolution was responsible to create a wedge between the eternal unity between the man and the materials/animals. Starting from 1563 with Rev. William Lee, born at Woodborough  (near Nottingham, England) inventing the Stocking Frame, a mechanical device for knitting stockings, till 1801, when Robert Trevithick (Cornwall, England) demonstrated a steam locomotive. Then the productive brain + work functions of the human groups were taken over by the mechanical machines. (Subsequent inventions at accelerated pace are classified as a Scientific Research and Development).
Machines produced the goods needed for basic+higher needs of the human beings in large quantities, in better quality and at lower costs.
In 1800s when machines became superior to the human beings  Persons who can take risks and acquire the machines (which needed a substantial investment) became the risk taking Capitalist (Category - A). They considered the non-capitalist minded manpower like a commodity, and started hiring and firing them.
By utilising the enhanced machine productivity, they paid a far less wage to the human operators and supervisors of the machines, to turn over a large volume of products with an advantageously higher price per unit, because of the cost reduction.
This created more people to look for only the basic needs, with limited power to think about other higher needs, and nil risk taking ability (Category  B and C). Capitalism divided the pattern of wealth possession, among the people.  However due to competition, capitalists felt the need for labour participation in management, labour training  and  incentives for the work force. It diluted the capitalism with more justifiable wealth share among the labour, and ended in a concept of “Socialism”.
However, Capitalism became a rule of the world in early 1880s, by making the rich richer, poor poorer.  It initiated a Capitalist (A) versus the Labour (C), a struggle between a few rich and a  large poor groups. This environment made some polotico-economic personalities to think and find an early solution to control and eradicate the growing “Capitalist” trend.
D) WEALTH ACQUISITION – BIRTH OF COMMUNISM
If any body  mentally think and arrive at the number of people in the world belonging to the above categories A, A1, B1, B and C, arithmetically and logically, the inference should be as
A = Very few.   A1 = Few.   B1 =  Some.   B = Many.   C = Very large  
This provides a guideline for answering the question “Why a large quantum of wealth is possessed by a very few people at one end, and why very large people are poor at the other end   in this   world of economics !!”. This is the foundation QUESTION on which the communism originated and survived in the world.
INFERENCE#1 – Wealth acquisition is directly proportional to the “Risk taking” ability and   Partially  proportional to the utility of “Intelligence”. INFERENCE#2 – Luxury acquiring, crossing the limit of the basic need acquisition, is directly proportional to a wrap around and medium economic wealth status (All the White collar and managerial professionals in the world – Middle class people in B category).
INFERENCE#3 – Limited economic survival thought, and prime orientation only towards the day to day economic need is directly proportional to a wrap around poor economic wealth status. [Over 70% of the population in the world are poor (B1) and below poverty line (C).
In 1897, a Paris-born engineer named Vilfredo Pareto showed that the distribution of wealth in Europe followed a simple power-law pattern, which essentially meant that the extremely rich hogged most of a nation's wealth (New Scientist, 19th  August 2000, p 22). Economists later realised that this law applied to just the very rich, and not necessarily to how wealth was distributed among the rest. But mathematically, a Pareto distribution has often been used to quantify the distribution of wealth in the world   It is called an “ABC analysis” or  a Power law (a polynomial relationship - an expression that is constructed from one or more variables and constants, using only the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and constant positive whole number exponents). It exhibits the property of the probability distribution that coincides with social, scientific, geophysical, and many other types of observable phenomena.
It is well known that wealth is shared out unequally and unfairly. People on the whole have normally distributed attributes, talents and motivations, yet it finishes up with unequal wealth distributions, disproportionate to the real talents of the people.
LESSON : Wealth equalisation is a marathon task in the world.  It is because every human being has an unique saturation level in the socio-economic strata, between A to C. Very few aim towards A. But most get stagnated at B or C level.
E) COMMUNISM – WEALTH EQUALISER
Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883), a German philosopher, political economist, and a revolutionary, was a pioneer in addressing the dominating role of Capitalism in the 1880’s world.
Marx addressed a wide range of issues. He was most famous for his analysis of history, summed up in the opening line of the introduction to the Communist Manifesto (1848) as "The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles". Marx believed that capitalism would be replaced by communism, over a period of time, by the people’s revolution.
Vladimir Ilyich  Ulyanov, better known by the alias “Lenin”  (April 22, 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a Russian revolutionary, a communist politician, the main leader and  the first head of the Soviet Union (USSR). Lenin introduced Communism into Russia. This changed the history for Russia as well as the rest of Europe. Lenin’s applied Marxist ideas in Europe and Russia,   posed a threat to Europe and the rest of world. In developing his plan of socialism in Russia, Lenin followed the examples of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels  [November 28, 1820, - August 5, 1895, a 19th-century German social scientist and philosopher, developed communist theory alongside his better-known collaborator, Karl Marx, co-authoring “The Communist Manifesto (1848)”, and the original developers of the communist theory]. Lenin explained  in his economic theory, called “Imperialism”, the first step was to gradually move into a joined monopoly with the capitalist phase, which later became communism. He considered   that  Monopoly and Capitalism are complete opposites to each other, and should cause problems to the survival of the human beings.

F) THE COMMUNIST APPROACH

Both Marx and Lenin were  revolutionist “Social leaders” and composed an “Economic leadership” theory under the assumption that, a large volume of human beings in the lower economic strata (B, B1 and C) will revolt to share the wealth of a few in the upper economic strata (A and A1). This was like “water will find its level” when poured into a large reservoir.
The other European politico-economists like Marx and Lenin, thought in similar formats. It lead to the formation of Communist dominated “East Germany (GDR)” by building the  great wall of Berlin on 13th August 1961, and the formation of the world’s largest communist empire, the  “USSR - Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics",  in 1922 with Russia + other 14 like minded Communist countries in Europe and North Asia.
But the communism centralised all the national wealth with the “State” in the Apex, so that any individual do not own any wealth. At the same time all individuals own all the national wealth aggregated at the state level. The state controlled and curbed all the individuals below, to take any type of risk, or utilise their brain power to innovate or have any say in the wealth utilisation at the state level apex. In this environment the only  rich  was the State (A) and all the people below were wage earning workers (C), but protected by the state  to meet all their basic needs.  This situation  heated the urge among the people for individual freedom and urge to upgrade their self economic and social level.
Marx and Lenin assumed that the large volume of people in lower economic and social strata will revolt and attain an equal wealth satisfaction level like “water will find its level” when poured into a large reservoir. But what happened was that the  people revolted to have the freedom to decide their own economic and social strata, by getting out of the reservoir (the state), holding them tight. As a result, the Communism crashed in the world by 1991.

    
The Communist Germany in the Eastern side dwindled down in their Socio-economic set-up, broke the wall on 9th November 1989, and merged with the Capitalist West Germany. 
   USSR dwindled into pieces of several smaller nations (and officially dissolved on 31st December 1991), each diluting their Communist principles (full State control), towards Private entrepreneurship, as well as associations and collaborations with the Capitalist dominated Western USA.
G) WHY COMMUNISM FAILED ?
It is a million dollar economic question !!! The reasons are   carried forward from the originator’s assumptions, the application methodology and the survival orientation of the people.
a) The originators of communism in the world, both Marx and Lenin were revolutionists or “Social leaders”. Any social leader in the world lacks “futuristic  management thoughts”. They had an ambition to share and equalise the wealth among all people, the end result. But they never thought on how the shared wealth could be put into productive use, create a surplus and   recycled to grow more and more, the throughput methodology.
b) Both East Germany and USSR pooled all the assets of their nation and made their “State” as the sole owner. Hence it assisted the state to grow as a monopoly and all the people as simple labour, without any self possessions. The state utilised the labour like a commodity, without any motivation to use their original ideas and any incentive to improve the productive contribution spirit.
c) These in turn,  created more deception and frustration into the minds of a large volume labour groups spread all over the nation, even though the state met the physical and the basic needs (food, shelter and clothing). But it failed to meet the higher economic and social needs imbedded into the human minds.
d) Nobody can have a surplus  economic holdings or be a leader of the local groups.  These in contrary to the belief of both Marx and Lenin, the human economic urges and social freedom wants revolted against the State and the “care-takers” of the state.
e) Marx, Lenin and all other communist leaders never realised that the force of ebullience (boiling)  to get social and economic freedom in an individual’s mental fluid is more powerful than the gravitational force (binding to each other) to find a ground level social compromise for equal share of all their virtues.
f) It ended an era of 69 years (1922 to 1991)   of communist domination in the world. Because  the communist principles were applied with emphasis on STATE orientation and not with PEOPLE orientation.
H) HOW COMMUNISM COULD HAVE FLOURISHED ?
It is an equally a million Euro question !!! If communism had a bit of futuristic management touch, it could have emerged as an international guideline for the human survival, prosperity and peace.
1) The communist nations, should not have   pooled all the wealth of the nation, entrusted it to the state, to   be managed by their elected care takers. This created a head weight monopoly in the apex.
2) The state and the elected leaders should not have considered all the domestic public as a labour, without any role to play in the management and operations of the national wealth, pooled at the apex.
3) The methodology for the continued survival of communism, should have been to “consider domestic population and their economic/social survival aspirations” as superior to the “head heavy state orientation”. Without diluting the concept  of  equal wealth share, the approach should have been to :-

  1. Form groups domestic holds ranging from 1,000  to a maximum of 10,000,  to  manage and progress ear-marked wealth-pool segments.

  2. Example.
    *  Pool cultivable lands in  1,000 acre  plots. Allot it to a domestic group of 1,000 agricultural expert people to work, cultivate, produce  ear marked crops in each season, sell/export and deposit the revenue in the Central Bank. (Mass farming  assist to get a high volume output at reduced cost). The central treasury should provide all the needed materials, over head expenses etc..  on justified and supported requests from the group members. A target sales quantum  should also be fixed.
    * Build automobile plants say with an investment of  1 million domestic currency each. Allot each unit  to a domestic group of 5,000 auto expert people to work, manufacture, assemble, test, sell/export and deposit the revenue in the central bank. The central treasury should provide all the needed materials, over head expenses etc.. on justified and supported requests from the group members. A target sales quantum  should also be fixed
    * Same is applicable to aeronautical, chemical, hospital, shipping, textile etc… industries. The entire population should be members of some group work and nobody should be unemployed.

b) The state  should  take care of the housing, food, clothing, children’s education, recreation, health care etc… for all the members in the groups.
c) The central bank should pay a fixed  salary to all the members of the group, irrespective of the type of their group membership (agricultural, industrial, health etc..), and their work functions. An adjustment amount could be given to some groups justified on the location and other acceptable exception criteria.
d) The sector groups who have not achieved the target sales quantum should be questioned, the reasons should be analysed, and actions should be taken by fixing the achievable targets  and  root cause against the achievement should be eradicated.
e) A justifiable sum of the net total surplus (or profits – losses) arising out of all group works in each year, shall be retained by the Central bank for further investment/development activities, and the balance shall be distributed equally among the group members  in all sectors, as an incentive.
f) If the net total is a loss, in any year,   it should be bourne by  the  central bank, analysed for the reason by sector, and corrective action should be taken for the non occurrence of  the same in the next year. The communist principles should be applied with emphasis on PEOPLE orientation as primary and STATE orientation as secondary.
g) In addition the productivity concept should be oriented towards “Socio-economic development (SED)” output as a major evaluation tool than “Quantum” measures. Accordingly the “management decision” methodology should also be tuned.
h) Socio-economic development acceleration drive has to come from inside a nation, than as a command/motivation from outside. This is possible if the “Domestic investments are from Domestic savings”  (even if it is with a foreign assistance to start with)  and  “Domestic technology” (latest technology moderated to suit the domestic conditions) should be  manned by the “Domestic labour”.   
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THEME JOKE - POLITOCO-FINANCIAL OVER VIEW 
GHOST MONEY ORDER TRIO IN POst OFFICE Munsiff
 Pensioner
 Master

Personally Seen and enjoyed the Funny Event

  • My mothers Uncle (Father's cousin Brother) by name "Subbiah", was a "Gazetted Head Post Master" in the Indian Postal Service. In 1960 he retired and settled in his native home at Kadayam, Tirunelveli District, Tamil Nadu (Old Madras State). While retiring, he opted for the "Pension" scheme, so that he can get a sizeable amount every month, like a salary, as long as he lives.

  • The Pension Scheme had an imperative clause, that he should submit a "Living Certificate" from a responsible and authorized local authority, who records and certifies the Births and Deaths in that area.

  • As an Old man of the village, a graduate of the 1920s from the University of Madras, during the British rule, with a good versatility in English, having retired from a senior position, he was liked and respected by everybody in the village.

  • Over a period of 1 year, the Village Munsiff, who was the local authority for birth and death records, was giving his Living certificate, and the Local Sub Post Master, who was delivering his monthly Pension money orders, became a "Trio friends" of the village.

  • Every morning at 5 AM, the Trio assemble in Subbiah's house, have a cup of tasty "Madras Filter coffee" (See Recipe below), and go for a morning stroll across the village streets. While walking, they discuss many knowledgeable matters from the recent "Financial Policy of the Government", to the "Techniques to induct a cow to give more milk", in their possible top shouting voices.

  • Because of this daily morning prompt, many villagers considered them as an alarm clock to wake them up to go to the local diary and get the morning milk. They were nick named in the village as the "Three morning Bulls".

  • During 1962 September, there was an unexpected   heavy rain in Tamil Nadu, due to a depression in the Bay of Bengal. All the traffic channels were blocked, and the Postal communications were highly disrupted.

  • Because of this, Subbiah's September Pension, expected in the first week of October, did not reach the Kadayam Post Office, from the Zonal Post Office in Madurai.

  • During November first week, the October pension came, while the September pension amount was still to be given. As usual Subbiah produced the Living certificate for November and took delivery of the Money Order. Immediately he sent a letter to Madurai Zonal Post office, complaining that he did not receive his September pension.

  • During mid November, the Post Master called Subbiah and said that his September pension amount has arrived, and take delivery with the October living certificate.

  • Subbiah went to the Village Munsiff, for the October Living certificate. The Minsiff laughed and said "I have already given a Living certificate for November, to draw your October pension. This is funny that now you are asking for a certificate to prove that you were living in the previous month of October !!. Do not take this certificate. If the Villagers come to know about it, they will laugh at you, and say that you are a morning "Ghost walker". If they continue to say so, then it will be embarrassing for me and the Post Master. We may also start feeling that we are walking with a Ghost !!!".

  • Immediately Subbiah went to the Post Office and said that "It will be disgraceful for all 3 of us to bring  my Certificate of Living for October", he sighed and said "After producing a certificate for the same in November. How can I might have died in October, re-live and draw my September late pension in November ?. Am I a Ghost here ???" he shouted at the Post Master

  • "My dearest Subbiah.." said the Postmaster, "It is a procedure of the Indian Government. It was set by the British Monarchs, who ruled us. Even though they have left us, and we got our independence in 1947, and formed a Democratic Government, we follow the same rules still". He had a glass of water and continued "We both may be good friends, and I am sure to know that you are living happily, healthily and walk with me every morning. But as far as the rule is concerned, you have died, as long as there is no certificate. If I deliver the Money Order to you, without a certificate, I will loose my job !!!".

  • Subbiah shouted "Job.. Job.. Job.. I have also seen enough Postal jobs. You people loose your conscious and common senses and behave idiotically. I am going to send a tough complaint about this nonsense to the 'Accountant General' at Madras".

  • There was a chorus of shouting in the Post Office, and all the village people assembled, and were enjoying the scene from both inside, outside and all possible windows and holes. In the mean time, the Village Munsiff also came there, and joined the chorus.

  • A postal counter clerk, sitting in a corner and vending stamps, came and humbly said "Sir, Can I interfere and convey a piece of reasoning to your problem ?".

  • The Post master shouted "Do not come in the middle.. I am here to enforce the rule..". "Yes Sir" said the Clerk "But I wish to highlight the importance of the rule, as I was an Audit Clerk in Madurai  Zonal Office, before I was transferred to Kadayam".

  • Our Trio was a little stunned and prepared to hear something new from him. The clerk continued "There is an yearly audit of the Pension payment at Madurai. Since there are over 80,000 Pension drawers in this zone, it is impossible to audit each and every payment". He rolled up his loincloth (Dhothi) properly, and continued "So, the auditor randomly takes 15 payments from the files. Then he verifies the Name, Amount and the Living certificate, with reference to the Master Pension Register.

  • "If there is any discrepancy, then he raises an audit objection, and it can put the Zonal Post Master, Post Master in the delivery location and the concerned Pensioner in trouble". He scratched his head and continued "Subbiah sir, in case randomly he gets your September Pension payment paper without a Living certificate, he will not go further to see whether you were living in October or November. He will raise an audit objection, and stop further payments to you, till the objection is enquired and cleared".

  • Subbiah inquisitively asked "How long it takes to enquire and clear the objection ?"

  • "Normally this could take over 9 to 12 months, Sir" replied the Clerk. There was a pin drop silence for a while. The Trio saw each other's face and Smiled. And then what happened ?????????

  • Munsiff issued, Master delivered, Pensioner grabbed.
    The fastest event ever seen in that Post Office !!!

  • Subbiah counted the money and venerated in his eyes. He called the clerk and presented a 10 Rupee note to him. "Why Sir ?" the clerk asked with perplexity. "It is a fee to you for educating us on the need to follow the procedure. "We should not care about who is in the ruling  Government. Let them be a Capitalist or Communist.". It is better to follow the rule, however foolish it may look, than to face problems.. stop payments and explanations, at a loss later" said Subbiah.

  • Next day morning stroll, the Trio was heard shouting that "The lately paid Pension Money order is a Ghost Money Order. So, we have to prove that we are not Ghosts". Heard from a 5'O Clock milk buyer.   GO TOP

THEME RECIPE - POLITICO FINANCIAL

  MADRAS FILTER COFFEE 
  SOURCE : Kanthimathi. House Wife

INGREDIENTS & REQUIREMENTS

Note : This is an exclusive, fresh and wholesome coffee without Chicory. Chicory seeds are ground and added to Coffee powder  to  give more lather, but it drastically changes the Coffee taste.
Precaution : Do not eat any sweet an hour before drinking this Coffee. It will offset the effect of sugar in the coffee, and induct a bitter taste in the tongue. However, if taken, eat some savoury like Bombay Bonda to nullify the effect of sweetness in the tongue.

  1. Coffee Beans are either Arabica from High lands or Robusta from low lands.
    Among these, there are "Plantation" and "Peabury" varieties.
    For Madras Filter Coffee, the Preferred Coffee bean is the flat
          cement coloured "Peabury" variety.
    Get well dried Peabury Coffee Beans - 1 Kg.

  2. Madras Coffee Filter - Stainless Steel - Medium Size.
    It has an upper cylindrical cup with fine sieve holes at the
         convex bottom (Curved Downwards) - About 4 Cm Diameter
         and 8 Cm height. 
    A flat bottomed cylindrical cup to collect the decoction - About
        4 Cm Diameter and 8 Cm height.  
    In order to provide enough pressure with filtering effect, a
         concave bottom plate (Curved Upwards)  with sieve holes and a
         central stem is provided - About  4 Cm Diameter plate with a
         7 Cm height stem.
    There is a lid on the top.
  3. Davara and Tumbler (Stainless Steel).
    The coffee is served in a flat bottomed uniform cylindrical
        vessel of
    about 5 Cm in height, with a flattened top, all around.
        It is  called a "Davara". (Base  picture in the left of this recipe
        header)
    For drinking, a "Tumbler" of about 10 Cm height is used.
        It has a flat bottom of about 4 Cm diameter, expanding conically
        upward to about 8 Cm on top. The top edge is rounded with an
        angular projection at  about 5 degrees.
    (See  picture in the left
        of  this recipe header)

    Clean the Dawara and Tumbler by rubbing with liquid soap.
        Thoroughly rinse with warm water, to remove all the soap liquid.
        They should look bright and glitter well.

  4. Coffee Grinder.
    An Electrical or  Mechanical dry grinder. 

BEAN PREPARATION (One Time)

  1. Roast the 1 Kg  Peabury Coffee bean in an Iron bowl (Ferrous base), at medium heat, with constant and uniform commove (agitation),  preferably  with a Wooden stem.

  2. Roast till all the beans are turned into a golden brown colour (Lower the heat if necessary).

  3. Test taste a bean to get a soft brittle bite and a wholesome coffee taste in the mouth (Bear a little bitter taste).

  4. Close the fire and leave it to cool for a while.

  5. Collect and store the roasted, moderately hot beans in a vessel, with an air tight lid.

INGREDIENTS - 1 Tumbler

  • Fresh roasted Coffee Bean - About 15 (From E).                     
  • Fresh Cow's Milk - Tumbler (See 3 above)
  • Sugar - 1 Table Spoons.
  • Clean Water -  Tumbler (See 3 above)

PREPARATION - 1 Tumbler
(Follow Steps in numerical order from 11 to 21)

  1. Fix the Coffee Filter top container (with sieve holes) into its bottom container.

  2. Freshly grind the Coffee Bean to a smooth powder, every time before preparation.

  3. Pour the powder into the Filter's top container. Insert the convex plate with sieve holes on the top of the powder. Give a little pressure to keep the powder in place between the top convex and bottom concave sieve holes.

  4. Boil the water and pour into the top container, slowly and smoothly, till the filter if full.

  5. Close the lid on the top, leaving a small opening for the air to go
    in. (Otherwise, the decoction may not go down due to vacuum
     creation.  This adjustment comes into practice by trial and error after preparing about 5 times).

  6. There will be a dripping sound of falling decoction.  When all the water has gone down to the bottom, the decoction is ready.

  7. Boil the milk and pour it into the Davara (See 3 above)

  8. Pour the decoction into  the Davara, till the milk turns into a Golden colour. (Neither too White nor too Brown).

  9. Add the sugar. Pour the hot boiling coffee from Davara to Tumbler, back and forth, till a good amount of lather is created (At possibly and practicably greatest heights, with hand adjustment, without spilling out. This also comes into practice by trial and error after preparing about 5 times. Pouring and Lathering generates the flavour).

  10. Pour the hot Coffee in Tumbler,  keep it inside the Davara, and serve. (See picture in the left of the header of this recipe),  so that the guest can pour the coffee from Tumbler to Davara, back and forth, till a drinkable heat is reached.

  11. It is recommended to drink the coffee in Tumbler, with the mouth vertically and the Tumbler at about 1 Cm above the mouth (without sipping) to get the absolute coffee taste, without the mixed metallic Tumbler taste.

MADRAS FILTER COFFEE IN DAVARA & TUMBLER

Foot Note : To entertain guests during tiffin time, serve the Coffee with a savoury like Bombay Bonda and Chennai Chatney. The Savoury and the Coffee should be taken alternately, to complement each other's taste in the tongue.

MORAL : A Stimulating hot drink in the morning and a Spanking Stroll around, Solves many Sensitive Stumpers.               GO TOP

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