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SUDHAA RASA - PAANAMU JHESI
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05. MUSICAL JOKE & RECIPE
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THEME JOKE - MUSICAL :
SOURCE : Personal
Visit, Observations & Experience
PATIENT PATRON & PERSUASIVE PERFORMER
Please read the
Presentation Disciplines near the bottom, for a Better understanding of this Joke
01. MUSICAL MARRIAGE
In Tamil Nadu (India), a marriage ceremony ending with a
musical concert, is considered as good and esteem for the
bride's as well as the groom's party. Till 1970s, the musical
program was a classical Karnatak musical concert. Subsequently, the
Cine music with western orchestra has become popular, because of their
In 1972, my maternal uncle performed his daughter's marriage at the "Parama
Kalyani" marriage hall in Alwarkurichi (Amabsamudhram Taluk,
Tirunelveli District, Tamil Nadu, India). The father and mother of the
groom, have set a pre-condition that there should be a Musical program
on the end of the marriage day. Accordingly my uncle fixed a Karnatak
Music recital by a Vocal Expert (Widhvan) from a near by village,
named, "Veeravanallur Varaahan" (VV). The accompanying Ghatam,
Mruthangam, Tambura and Violin artists were selected by VV himself.
A pre-condition was made that the concert duration should be at least
4 hours, from 6.30 PM to 10.30 PM. An escalated sum of 5,501/=
Indian Rupees (
) was agreed, even though he normally
charges 3,001/= for 2 to 3 hours concert. (Payment in odd figure was
considered auspicious. It was Equivalent to about 367 US$, at 15 Rs
per Dollar in those days).
: The Musical exponents in South India always prefix the name of their
native place to their personal name, to get an unique identity,
as well as a prestigious recognition in their birth place. Some
artists suddenly become famous and get mass popularity, by singing as
a play-back in a film.
02. SNARED IN SOUP
Suddenly VV said "Normally we perform only for 2 to 3 hours.
However for you we are agreeable to 4 hours, provided you serve "Jeeva
Rasam" in the dinner, at least 5 cups each, before we start. Because
it will provide more vitality and tolerance for this elongated
performance". Uncle was perplexed on this "Bomb shell" request, and
felt like Snared (Entrapped) in a Soup. Jeeva Rasam or Eternity Soup
(developed by the Sage Sivananda), needs expensive
ingredients, advance planning and expertise in the preparation.
The peculiarity of this soup is that it can be an item in the daily
He felt that it cannot be added as a part of the marriage dinner,
which is exclusively controlled and monitored as per the likes and
tastes of the Groom's party. However he agreed to serve exclusively
for them, by preparing about 25 cups (5 Persons X 5 Cups).
Sivananda : 1887 - 1963.
One of the greatest Yoga masters of the 20th century.
Born in Paththamadai,
Tirunelveli District, Tamil Nadu, India. Paththamadai is on the banks
of river Thamira Varni. He was a medical doctor in
Malaysia. He established the main Yoga centre in Rishikesh, Himalayas,
India and many Aurvedhic centres in the world. Through Research &
Development, he formulated the Jeeva Rasam, for vitality and sharpened
The peculiarity of this soup is that it can be an item in the daily
The teachings of Sivananda could be summarized in 6 words as
"Serve, Love, Give, Purify, Meditate and Realise".
River Tamira Varni :
Thamira Varuni is the chief
river of the Tirunelveli district, which has a large network of 19
tributaries. They are
Ullar and Varahanathi.
Thamiram means Copper and Varni is Colour.
Paththamadai is famous for the fine mats made of a grass called "Korai",
belonging to the sedge family of plants Cyperaceae, growing on the banks of Thamira Varni.
The Korai grass has the essence of Copper and relieves all body
pains by sleeping over it, besides inducting mental peace and nervous
normality. The quality of mats range from coarse to a silken
finish. Skilled mat weavers can insert pictures, letters and drawings
on the mat. Cost of the mat range from US$ 3 to 3,000 depending
on the texture, fineness and the art work. In Tirunelveli district,
all marriage celebration are conducted with the "Paththamadai Mat",
having the name of the Groom and Bride woven on it.
EXPERTISE (6.30 to
On the concert day, the
hall was fully packed with about 500 audience both from the Bride's,
Groom's party as well as from the local public. VV was very happy,
started the concert exactly at 6.30 PM. He decided to initiate
the performance with a "Pictorial Preface" song (Varnam) in the Ragam
"Dheera Sankarabarnam". This Ragam uses
all the notes forward and backward from Base-C (SA) to Octave-C (SAA)
, in the "Diatonic
Scale" (All White keys in a Piano Key Board). He set it to 3 beats
interval (Roopaka Thalam or Theen Thal or Waltz beat). The audience
was thrilled and clapped loudly on his style and presentation.
VV was exhilarated (happy thrill) and decided to capture the audience
next by his unique skill on note variation methodology, without
knowing what is going to happen !!.
04. AMBIGUOUS ADJACENT
(6.55 to 7.15 PM)
Next he has the choice
to sing a light popular song or elaborate any popular Ragam. But
he quickly decided to present the Ragam "Mecha
Kalyani" in "Equally
Tempered Scale", which is very similar sounding to the
introductory Dheera Sankarabrnam. This Ragam also uses all the
notes forward and backward from Base-C (SA) to Octave-C (SAA).
But it has F# (F-Sharp-M2) instead of F (M1), in the note
combinations. The audience were not able to make out the difference
and felt that VV is repeating the elaboration of of his first Ragam
(which he is supposed to do in the mid of the concert). There were
murmurs of ambiguity among the audience. When VV completed and the
Violinist took over the same, about 200 people left the hall. VV was
shocked to see this.
05. GRINDING GAMAGAMS
(6.55 to 7.25 PM)
In order to control the
exodus attitude of the audience, VV closed the Mecha Kalyani fast,
with a small song. He then remembered 2 unique technique taught
to him by his famous teacher :-
Producing a humming
between 2 notes in a Ragam. It is called
"Chalana Gamagam", with a
movement. In Western music it is called "Glissando". He performed
this in Ragam "Bhoopalam" which uses
only 6 Notes from the Equally Tempered Scale. Also, it uses the same
Notes both in Forward and Backward directions. He hummed the
melodious continuity in between each Note interval, with
utmost care and precision.
Emphasising the same
note at different melodious pitches either Upward or Downward or a
combination of both. It is confined to one note and it is Static. It
is called a "Gamana Gamagam". In Western music it is called as
He performed this in
Ragam "Madhyamavathi" which also uses
only 6 Notes from the Equally Tempered Scale, up and down. He hummed
each Note at different possible pitches, with lot of stress and
Both the above were
unplanned additions. Hence, the Violinist was confused. He
to reproduce the humming
effects correctly, but also tinged the song with notes not applicable
to the Ragams chosen.
The humming went beyond
the domain of counted beats and intervals. Hence, the Mrutangam and
Ghatam artists were baffled during the humming. They produced some un-synchronised
sounds, compelled by the need to exhibit some activity, and keep the
Some of audience felt
that VV is closing the performance, as he sang Madhyamavathi,
which is an ear-marked closing and valedictory Ragam.
The net effect of this
Grinding Gamagam motivated about 150 members of the audience to run
away from the hall immediately. VV, the supporting artists and the
balance 150 audience were sweating and shivering to see what is going
to happen next ?.
(7.25 to 7.45 PM)
Since, the concert has
reached the middle time, VV traditionally initiated the descriptive
elaboration of the Ragam "Dheera Sankarabarnam",
the introductory Ragam at the start. The repetion by the
violinist, vibratory inductions with "Dhanam", detailed syllable
exposition (Ragam-Dhanam-Pallavi) and the individual "beat
performance" of the Mruthangam / Ghatam went up to 7.45 PM. VV
performed with greater zeal and enthusiasm. Closed his eyes in musical
concentration, to an extent that the sitting carpet and the stage were
vibrating with acoustic resonance !! When he opened his
eyes and cleared his sweat, he found the hall was
empty. VV was
frustrated, looked around and them smiled. He spoke
something closely, mouth to ear, with other artists.
07. PATIENT PATRON
(7.45 to 10.30 PM)
The reason for the
murmur and smile of VV was a lonely listener sitting in the right hand
side of the stage, behind a table and tapping his hand. What he said
to the fellow artist was that :-
They should perform for
another 2¾ hours, and go up to
10.30 PM as agreed and accepted an enhanced payment in advance, as
well the Jeeva Rasam service.
There is a lonely and
patient patron in the hall expecting to listen and enjoy their
musical concert. Hence, it is their duty to fulfill the expectation
of the patient patron.
But during the next 2¾
hours, he made an excellent, melodious and devoted performance in line
with the presentation disciplines of the Karnatak Music (See 7 Below).
It was strange that he was doing it for a single audience !!!
A song in the Ragam "Kaanada"
in the language "Kannada", the official language of the adjacent
A popular rural song of of
the post-harvest period, sung by the farmers in the
district was presented in the Ragam
It was interesting to find that the melody of this Ragam
had an "Arabic"
Then, an announcement was
made that he is presenting a song in the Ragam
by him to respect his native place "Veerava Nallur".
He informed that it has the forward notes of the Ragam
Ranjani" (Jana =
People) and Backward notes of the Ragam
= Base and Background). He said "This combination inducts Valour
and Courage, the theme of
or Hero, to the listeners", and presented a
Freedom song of
Subramania Bharati, was born in Ettayapuram, Tamil Nadu, India
and married in Kadayam, Tirunelveli District. Entered the national
scene as an inspirational poet on patriotism. With a simple and yet
fabulous technique of combining the rhythm of spoken language in a
ceaseless flow of prose and poetry, Bharati captured the imagination
of the Tamil people. His collection of songs on national unity,
Swadesha Geetangal, meaning songs on Indian nationalism, was
first published in 1908 which was followed by Janma Bhoomi,
meaning motherland, published in 1909.
Every Karnatak Ragam use either F (M1) or F# (F-Sharp, M2) and
not both. But VV has made "Veera Ranjani" with "Jana Ranjani"
using F (M1) forward and "Shruthi Ranjani" using F# (M2) backward.
It was bold, unique, peculiar and exceptionally innovative
Next, he sang a set of
selected 6 verses from "Bagavat Gita" (5,000 Years old Indian Vedhic
& Philosophical Scripture) emphasizing the yoga concepts
"Meditate, Realise, Give, Serve, Love, and Purify",
(See above in 02). He skillfully organised them in the order of
Karnatak Ragams aplicable to different Time from Pre-dawn to Night,
and presented like a Musical Garland (Raga Malika) .
All Matters in the universe resonate
with reference to a particular acoustic frequency. Matter
expands with heat and the resonant frequency is lowered.
If cooled the resonant frequency is raised. Each
Ragam generates a net- effective frequency. Hence they are
synchronised with the time of the Day and Night, to activate
certain eternal / internal functions in the human body (DR.VSRS).
Maya Malava Goulai
Hara Hara Priya
Then, he quickly presented a
Snake dance music (Thillana) in the Ragam "Punnaga
Varali" (Naga = Snake). This is used by the Snake charmers to
attract, dance to the tune, unconsciously catch and stock the
Snakes in a mud pot.
conclusion, he musically recited a Sanskrit Verse, in "Sri
emphasizing the concepts of
Peace, Prosperity and
Satisfied co- existence of all species in the Universe.
He concluded the concert
exactly at 10.30 PM.
TEARFUL FINALE ( 10.30
PM TO 11 PM)
It is a common scene at
the end of any Karnatak Musical performance, that the Audience
over-whelmed by the melody, go to the stage and express their
heart-full feelings to the Performing Artists. But the reverse
happened in this program. VV with tearful eyes, came down all the way
to thank and appreciate the lonely audience for his presence and keen
But the lonely man said
"I do not know anything about music, nor I was keen to listen to your
concert". I have given my Costly Arabian Carpet on which you
were sitting, on hire for a sum of Rupees 200. I was waiting to take
the carpet and go back, as soon as you finish !!
VV was taken back, and said
"No, You were listening and correctly tapping your left hand fingers
to the beats of the Mruthangam and Ghatam. Definitely you are thrilled
by the presentation of the musical group. That made you to stay in the
hall, even though everybody have left !!".
The man said "No Sir.
You were moving here and there, activated by the tones of your music,
and shaking my carpet vehemently. I was afraid that my Carpet
may be damaged. I was trying to keep my finger crossed, without
knowing which 2 to cross first !!!. In my opinion, you are a "Carpeted
Crooner" (Singer of popular Ballets, sitting on a Carpet. Ballets are
music written for stage dancing. In Tamil he said "Kambili Kooththar".
Kambili = Carpet. Kooththar = Dance Master).
Creativity of any artist is directly proportional to the quantum
appreciation from the audience, irrespective of whether it is from 1
or Many in crowd. Even assumed appreciation could mathematically
induct the same effect. Hence, Music is a "Mirror Enjoyment Tool". The
Performer cannot enjoy it. But the Reflected enjoyment of the audience
showers the happiness on the Performer. What is good for the Performer
need not be good for the Audience and Vice Versa. A music
concert shall have an assorted contents, linked to the different
tastes and likes of the people.
OBSERVATION : I was
sitting and listening the whole musical concert from the Green Room,
located to the left of the Dias. In my opinion, VV presented an
un-comparably best program in Karnatak music at the Start (with
500 audience) and from 7.45 to 10.30 PM (in an Empty hall). But being
a Rural artist, he remained in the Village background with poverty and
without any push, opportunity and encouragement.
See : "Elegy
written in a Country
By : Thomas Gray, English poet (1716 - 1771)
is in the southern triangular base of the solid Deccan plateau of
India. Historically, it was a densely wooded area and was known as “Kaderu”,
which literally indicates the forest boundary. The Western Ghats is
among the 18 world biodiversity hotspots very different from other
sites. Agasthiarmalai (1681 mtrs) which falls within the core zone, is
the 3rd highest peak in South India and considered as one of the five
centres of plant diversity and endemism (natural) in India (IUCN). The
topography is undulating (curved and wavy). This is the only area of
Western Ghats with the longest raining period of about 8 months in a
year, and it is the only non-dipterocarp (Teek and other flouring and
valuable timber family) evergreen forest in the region. It is in
Ambasamuram Taluk of Tirunelveli District, about 32 km south-west of
Tirunelveli on the Ambasamudram to Thenkasi highway. It is between the
rivers “Ramanathi” in the north and “Ghatana” in the south. The
Western forests turn to South at this exact point. Hence Alwarkurichi
is surrounded by the forest both in West and South, and by villages in
the east and north. ANIMALS :
Asian Elephant, Bonnet Macaque, Brown mongoose, Brown palm civet,
Crocodile, Gaur, Indian pangolin, Jackals, Leopard, Lion tailed
Macaque, Malabar giant squirrel, Mouse deer, Nilgiri Langur, Nilgiri
Martin, Rusty spotted cat, Sambhar, SlenderLoris, Sloth Bear, Spotted
deer, Tahal, Tiger,Wild dogs.
: Black and forest monkeys,
Broad tailed Grass warbler, Ceylon mouth frog, Country crows, Great
Indian Hornbill, Great Pied hornbill, Grey headed bulbul, Malabar Grey
hornbill, Oriental bay owl.
PLANTS : Albizia lebeck, Anacolosa densiflora, Anogeissus
latifolia, Artocarpus hirsuta, Alstonia scholaris,
Calophylum elatum, Careya arborea, Chloroxylon swietenia, Cinnamum
zeylancium, Cullenia exasillata, Cullenia exelsa, Cullenia resaraona,
Dalbergia latifolia, Dalbergia paniculata, Decussocarpus wallichianus,
Dysoxylim malabrium, Elaeodendron glacum, Eleogarpus tuberculatus, Emblica
officinalis, Eugenia species, Felicium decipiens, Ficus spp, Garcinia
cambogia, Gluta travancorica, Hardwickia binata, Hopea parviflora, Hopea
utilis, Kingiodendron pinnatum, Litsea species, Macaranga roxburghii,
Mallotus philippensis, Mangifera indica, Mesua ferrea, Myristica
species, Phyllanthus emblica, Podocarpus latifolia, Pterocarpus
marsupium, Syzygium sp, Tectona grandis, Terminalia spp, Vateria
malabaraica, Vitex altimassima, Wrightia tinctoria, Xanthophyllum
R & D : The mountain ranges
and the surroundings is a centre for research and development. The
Parama Kalyani Research centre affiliated to the Manonmaiam Sundarana
University is located in the western mountain base, near Alwarkurichi
railway station.. The speciality
courses for post graduate programs are Anti bacterial and phyto-chemical studies (plant therapy),
Environmental bio-technology and Nano bio-technology .
Flying Lizard, King Cobra, Monitor Lizard, Pit viper, Python, etc..RIVERS
: The rich forests of the Reserve form the catchment area for 11
rivers and streams. They are Bana dheertham, Gadnanadi, Kadnar, Kallar,
Karayar, Kodaiyar, Manimuthar, Pachayar, Ramanadi, Servalar,
Tambraparani, forming the back-bone of the irrigation network and
drinking water for people of Tirunelveli, Turicorin and part of
Kanyakumari districts. On the southern turning point of Westen ghats,
on the Papavinasam mountain range, there is a historical twin
hydro-electric power generation unit. Using the gravitational force
of the stored water, the “Upper dam” on the top of the hills generates
electric power at stage – 1 and sends the water down through the
penstocks to the “lower dam” for stage-2 generation.
: It is at the centre of Kadayam – Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve. The
Tiger Reserve has three living colonies of State Electricity Board personnel
and labourers, a large multinational tea company with about 10,000
workers besides several small estates and 5 Kani Tribal habitations
consisting of about 102 families. Around 145 hamlets situated within 5
km from the eastern boundary of the Reserve running over 110 km are
inhabited by 1,00,000 people. YOGA
: Alwarkurichi has a pollution free environment supported both by the
absence of any industry and the stimulating wind flow from the herbal
rich forests behind. There many yoga centres in the lower mountain
range area of Alwarkurichi offering herbal, mental and natural
methodology for longevity and peaceful life.
DISCIPLINES OF KARNATAK MUSIC (VOCAL)
Vocal Karnatak Music, in South
India has certain minimum standards to stage a performance. There
should be a minimum of 5 personnel to form a presentation team (See
picture in the left).
1. The Vocal Expert
(Called Widhvan-W), the main performer, is located at the centre of
the dias, facing the audience directly. He sings the musical words of
a song, set to a particular beat. (From 1 to 16 beats per second,
forming a Hexoctal frequency).
2. Thambura (T)
is a 4 strings instrument, made of Jack wood (Artocarpus Heterophyllus).
This provides the Basic Pitch
for the musician, set to “C-G-G-C(Octave) or Sa-Pa-Pa-Sa(Octave)” . It
is played constantly in a concert. When a Thambura is tuned with
precision and accuracy, the resultant musical sound is in itself so
very pleasing. It can be held either vertically or horizontally while
being played. It is located just behind the Vocalist, closer to his
left or right ear, to enable the flow of the musical melodies,
synchronized with this Base hymn. Now Thambura is replaced by an
Electronic Basic pitch producer.
3. The violin (V)
is a stringed musical instrument that has four strings. Karnatak music
requires the Violinist to sit cross-legged on a platform. The support
Violin artist, accompanies and reiterate the melodies of the Vocalist
through a string rhythm. The Violinist is located at about 45º to the
left of the Vocalist, facing inward. The Violin is balanced between
the chest and the scroll held by the anklebone of the right foot. The
string tuning is changed to suit the lower pitch in which the
Vocalists sings. The lowest string (and hence the lowest note) is the
G (Pa) just below middle C, then in ascending order D (Ri), A (Dha)
and E (Ga). A common colloquial name for the violin, used to play
traditional music, is the fiddle. A person who plays violin is called
a violinist or fiddler. For Sheet music (a musical composition in
printed or written form), a violin is tuned to the G-Clef (Treble
4. Mrudhangham (M)
0r Membranophone, made of Jack wood (Artocarpus Heterophyllus) or Red
wood (Sequoia Gigantean). It is an ancient percussion (drumming)
instrument. It is an indispensable accompaniment to vocal,
instrumental and dance concerts. It is cylindrical in shape, bulging
at the centre and has unequal circular faces at both ends. These are
covered with animal skin. The larger side is covered with thin gauge
skin and the smaller side with a thicker gauge skin with an extra
thick black circular lump at the centre. This is to resonate the
musical tones of the Vocalist, with equivalent and synchronized
humming beats. This is located at about 45º to the right of the
Vocalist, facing inward. The left and right membranes are tuned to
synchronise with the Base tone (Sruthi on Tambura). The artist only
follows the beat per second set by the Vocalist, irrespective of the
words or the notes. Now, the Mrudhangams are made of Carbon or Fibre-glass
body with Poly Vinyl / Plastic side coverings.
accompanying alternate “Earthern pot”. This is to resonate the musical
tones, with equivalent and synchronized country flat beats. Ghatam is
located in the right side of the vocalist, between the Vocalist and
Mruthangam artist, facing inward. Ghatam is made of Hard Clay from
river beds, and baked in charcoal fire, to give an uniform red colour
finish. The surface thickness is slightly more than those used for
domestic water storage. Different tones are produced by closing or
partially controlled opening of the mouth, to moderated the volume of
air inside. The artist only follows the beat per second set by the
Vocalist, irrespective of the words or the notes. It will be
interesting to watch the artist to play a beat, throw the pot upward
to exactly match the silent interval, catch and continue the next beat
!! Now, Ghatams are made in Fibre glass or Carbon.
On the Dias,
the Violinist, Vocalist, Gatam and the Mruthngam artists squat on a
comfortable Carpet, forming an open right to left circle,
centered towards the mid of the audience. (Additional support
instruments are optional. Some Vocalists keep so many other
support instruments to the extent of creating an wonderful sight !!
There will be more crowd on the Stage than in the
7. ON-THE STAGE PRESENTATION OF KARNATAK MUSIC
Western classical music, the Karnatak classical concerts do not have a
"Conductor" in the front of the concert team, to guide, co-ordinate
and synchronise the Vocalist and the Instrumentalists. It is because,
the co-ordination and synchronisation components are imbedded in the
Song, Ragam and the Beat selection by the Vocalist.
There are standard songs by famous composers, known to all and the
accompanying artists. The Ragam (A Well Formatted and Pre-assembled
Melody Sequence) has a pre-set ascending and descending note
combination, understood by all, as soon as it is initiated. The pace
is exposed by the Vocalist, by beating his hand on his lap, with
the correct strokes and intervals.
The starter should be a “Pictorial Preface”, called the “Varnam” (Colour).
A song in a popular Ragam (pre-fixed note combination), set to a
popular beat is exposed in its full format, to create a happy
starter effect to the audience.
After the initiator song, depending on the total available concert
time, the options are :-
- Present few short,
popular and audience appealing songs. Or
Elaborate a few popular Ragams, and present the suitable music on
the same (Aalapana). During the elaboration of a Ragam by the
Vocalist, the support instruments are not played, for the audience
to concentrate and listen to the intricacies and schematic note
combinations. After the presentation by the Vocalist, the Violinist
repeats the same, with his imaginative additions and note
combinations possible only by a string instrument.
Middle of the total concert time, the Preface Ragam in 1 shall be
elaborated, elucidated with vibrating syllables (Dhaanam), and all
the features to be exposed by spacing from slower to faster
intervals (Pallavi). It is shortly called as “Ragam-Dhanam-pallavi”
the RDP, a song in the same Ragam is presented. But it is halted
at a closer point towards the end. Then the support artists
on beating instruments (Mruthangam and Ghatam) start the beats
individually and alternatively, from the beginning of the song and
continue the slower intricacies, in an orderly fashion. Then they
jointly present the faster involutions and intervals in an amazing
synchronization !! They touch the same point where the Vocalist left
the song. Then all jointly complete the song. This is called
“Individual Exposition” or “Thani Aavardhanam” in Tamil (Thani =
Individual. Aavardhanam = Exposition).
Subsequently, selected songs in different languages are
presented. An innovation in this item is presenting an “English
Note” composed as per the Arithmetical rules of the Karnatak
some Devotional / Freedom / Rural songs are presented.
innovative singers compose their own Ragams and present a song. It
is customary to explain the details of the innovation, for a better
understanding of the audience.
Ragams should be blended to each stanza of a single song, with
smooth / synchronised notes change over, and optimised
melody ingredient, like a garland with different sweet smelling
flowers. It is called "Raga Malika" (Malika = Garland).
but not the least, a Dance music (Called Thillana) is presented,
which highlights the importance of the beats of the supporting
instruments (Mruthangam and Ghatam), synchronized with the words of
concert is ended with a valedictory song, expressing the need
and initiate the inductance of Peace, Prosperity and satisfied
co-existence of all species in the Universe. (Madhyamavathi or
Sri Ragam are recommended for
HISTORY & COMPONENTS OF
Traditionally in Karnatak Vocal performances Veena was a side
support string instrument. The Violin became the prime side support
string instrument, replacing and upgrading Veena to a Main performance
string instrument. No other European instrument has been adapted to
Karnatak music like the Violin.
The Violin is an European instrument, which was developed in a crude
form with 3 strings, during Renaissance (The period in European
history at the close of the Middle Ages and the rise of the modern
world; a cultural rebirth from the 14th through the middle of the 17th
centuries). Hence it was not invented by any body. The first Karnatak
musician to learn violin was Baluswamy Dikshitar(1786-1858), the
brother of Muthuswamy Dikshitar (1776 – 1827. An eminent music
composer). He was patronised by Manali Muthukrishna Mudaliar, an
interpreter to the British Governor, Pigot in that period, and
introduced to the European orchestra (or the band), attached to the
East India Company. He learnt violin for 3 years and used to play it
in the court of Ettayapuram (India) kings, as an accompaniment to vocal music.
Varahappa Iyer, a minister in the Tanjore Maratha court, was close to
the British Governor in Madras. He too learnt violin and adapted it to accompany
the vocal music. Vadivelu (1810-1845) one of the Tanjavur Quartet (4
Member musical team), and direct disciple of Muthuswamy Dikshitar, was
the most significant person, contributed for the adoption of Violin in
Karnatak musical concerts. Vadivelu was appointed the Asthana
Widwan (Regiment Musician) in the court of composer-king Swati Tirunal
of Travancore (Kerala,
Generally the Belly (also called the top), the Sound post
and the Bass bar are made of Spruce (Genus Picea), a light but
strong softwood. The Back, Ribs, Neck, Peg box, Scroll and bridge are
of Maple (Genus Acer), a hardwood. The best woods have been seasoned
for many years in large wedges and the seasoning process continues
indefinitely even after the Violin has been made. The Fingerboard of a
violin is ideally made of Ebony (Genus Diospyros), but some
particularly old violins have ivory fingerboards. Fingerboards on
factory violins are often made of a less expensive variety of wood and
stained black. The tuning pegs are also often made of Ebony, although
a softer wood is sometimes chosen to minimise wear on the peg holes
and for economies in cost. The Tailpiece is the last part of the
violin traditionally made from Ebony, although there are now many
suitable and popular materials, including aluminium and plastic.
Strings were first made of sheep's intestines, stretched, dried and
twisted. Contrary to popular belief, violin strings were never made of
cat gut. Such strings are still often used in historically accurate
performances of music from the 18th century and earlier. They are also
sometimes used in older instruments in fragile condition, where a
synthetic string would potentially harm the instrument. Tonally, they
can be compared to the speaking voice. Later it was found that strings
could be improved by winding metal around the gut. The resulting
strings were stronger and more even, and by tuning them to a higher
tension more volume could be drawn out of the same instrument. The
higher tension results in an equivalent pitch because the outer
winding gives them greater mass.
The hair of the bow is traditionally white horse (male) hair, although
many cheaper bows use synthetic fiber. The hair must be frequently
rubbed with rosin in order to grip the strings and cause them to
vibrate. The stick is traditionally made of wood, although some
student bows are made of fiberglass. Recent innovations have allowed
carbon-fiber to be used as a material for the stick at all levels of
RECPE : JEEVA RASAM
Sivananda Ashram, Paththamadai, Tirunelveli District, Tamil Nadu,
India. (See details under 02 on the Top)
Jeevan = The Life Matter
in the body. Rasam = Motivated and Continued
Happiness or Soup.
This is a Brain sharpening and Physical Vitality addition
soup. It can be a part of the daily break-fast, lunch or dinner menu.
It can be consumed in glass or added to cooked Rise or
Wheat grains and eaten.
||Hing, Perungayam, Ferula Foetida
||Indian Ginseng, Amukiran Kizhangu, Solamaceac,
Winter Cherry, Withania Somnifera
||Urad dal, Ulundhu, Phasleous Mungo
||Kaala Mirch, Milagu, Piper Nigrum
||Dhania, Kotha Malli, Cilantro
||Jeera, Cuminum Cynimu
||Curry Patha, Karuveppilai
||Amla, Nellikkai, Ribes Grossularia,
||Pipali, Piper Longum
||Brassica Alba / Juncea
||Laal Mirchi, Milagai, Capsicum Annum,
Hamli, Puli, Famarindus Indica
Thuvar Dal, Thuvaram Paruppu, Pigeon Peas
||Haldi, Manjal, Curcuma Long
Asafoetida - 1/4 Tea Spoon (TS)
- 1 Table Spoon (TBS)
- 1/4 TS
Coconut (Grated) - 1
Cumin Seeds - 1 TS
Curry leaves (Dried) - 7 Leaves
Fenugreek seeds -
Fresh Flavour Ghee -
- 1 TS
Red Chili Powder -
Turmeric powder -
01. Spray Fresh Flavour Ghee in a non-stick
frying pan and roast each of the above
ingredients one by one till they turn aromatic.
02. Mix all the ingredients and grind into a fine
powder using an electric grinder.
03. Store Jeevan Blend in a air-tight bottle and
use when required.
Seeds - 1/2
Tea Cup (TC)
- 1/2 TC
- 1/2 TC
Whole Black Pepper - 1
01. Slightly roast (without adding oil) the
ingredients in a fry pan, one by one
02. Grind the roasted ingredients into a nice
03. Store Rasam Blend in a air-tight bottle and
use when required.
03. JEEVA RASAM
Asafoetida - 1/4 Tea Spoon (TS)
Ashwa Gandhi Juice - 1 Table Spoon (TBS)
Bermuda Grass Juice - 1 TBS
Black Pepper - 1/4 TS
Coriander leaves - 3 TS
(Washed & Finely Chopped)
Coriander seeds - 2 TS
Cumin Seeds - 1 TS
Curry leaves -
( Washed & Finely Chopped)
Fresh Flavour Ghee - 1 TBS
Goose Berry (Juice) - 1 TBS
Jeevan Blend (01 Above) - 1 TBS
Kandan Thippili - 1 TS
Mustard - 1/2 TS
Rasam Blend (02 Above) - 1 TBS
Red Chilly Powder - 5 TS
Salt - 1 TBS
Tamarind - Small lemon size pulp
Thoor dhal - 1 Tea Cup
Tomatoes - 2 Medium Size
Turmeric powder - 1/4 TS
01) Keep a
large vessel to prepare the Jeeva Rasam.
02) Soak Tomatoes in hot water, crush them. Filter into the vessel 01.
03) Extract the Tamarind pulp essence by adding warm water, leave it for 15 minutes,
crush and filter into the vessel in 01.
04) Add Ashwa Gandhi, Bermuda grass and Gooseberry juices into the contents of Vessel 01.
05) Add Jeevan and Rasam blends into the contents of Vessel 01.
06) Cook Thoor Dhal in a small pressure cooker.
(3 Cups of water. 10 Steam pressure whistles). Nicely wet grind in a mixer into a paste. Add to the contents of Vessel 01.
07) Keep the Vessel 01 with all contents in a Medium fire and wait till it boils. Then
reduce the fire to Sim, keep for 5 Minutes and remove from fire.
Non-stick vessel on medium fire, for light surface frying. Use a Wooden or Teflon spoon to Scatter / Stir and transfer the contents.
(a) Crush Kandan Thippili into a fine powder.
Spray a about
5 drops of Fresh Flavour
Ghee (FFG). As soon
as slight fume comes,
crushed Kandan Thippili, Scatter /
Stir till the
aroma comes. Add this to the
(b) Spray a about 10 drops of FFG.
fume comes put the Mustard
soon as it crackles, quickly add
Black Pepper, Coriander
seeds, Red chilli powder and
powder. Scatter / Stir till the
Add this to the boiled liquid
09. Add the raw chopped Coriander and Curry leaves to the boiled liquid in 07.
10. The Jeeva Rasam is ready. Srve hot in a glass or with Cooked Rice / Wheat granuels.
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