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THEME JOKE :  SPATTER TO SAVE THYSELF 
KOH-I-NOOR DIAMOND
?NADIR SHAH?BRITISH CROWN WITH KOH-I-NOOR DIAMOND
"Nadir Shah" Afshar (Iran). Oil on canvas.
Artist: Abol-Hassan 1774

SOURCE :
Afsharid Dynasty (Nadir Shah)   http://www.iranchamber.com/history/afsharids/afsharids.php
+ Special data collection & Innovative additions by the Author
 MENTORED IN INDIA !!

NADIR'S EMERGENCE
Nadir Shah or King Nadir (1688-1747), the founder of Afsharid Dynasty, an enigmatic figure in Iranian history ruled India from 1738 to 1747 A.D. Nadir Shah, or Nadir Qoli Beg was born in Kobhan, Iran, on October 22, 1688, into one of the Turkish tribes loyal to the Safavid shahs of Iran (Safavid Empire 1502 to 1736). He was the son of a poor peasant, who lived in Khorasan and died while Nadir was still a child. Nadir and his mother were carried off as slaves by the Ozbegs, but after death of his mother in captivity Nadir managed to escape and became a soldier. Soon he attracted the attention of a chieftain of the Afshar in whose service Nadir rapidly advanced. Eventually, the ambitious Nadir fell out of favour. He became a rebel and gathered a substantial army. Subsequent history of his ventures were :-
1719 : The Afghans had invaded Persia. 
1729 : Nadir had freed Persia from the Afghans.
1736 : Nadir evidently felt that his own position had been
           established so firmly that he no longer needed to hide
           behind a nominal Safavid Shah and ascended the throne
           himself.
1738 : He invaded Kandahar (Afghanistan), captured Kabul. and
            marched on to India. After the death of  Aurangjeb in
            1707, India was in the hands Mohammed Shah. Nadir
            seized and sacked the Delhi rulers. After some
            disturbances, he killed 30,000 of their citizens. He
            plundered  the Indian treasures of the Moghal Emperors,
            taking with him the famous jewel-encrusted  Peacock
           Throne  and the Koh-i-Noor diamond.
1743 : He resumed war with Turkey. In addition, he built a navy
           and conquered Oman.
SELFISH NADIR

Gradually Nadir's greedy and intolerant nature became more pronounced. The financial burden of his standing armies was more than the Persians could bear and Nadir imposed the death penalty on those who failed to pay his taxes. He stored most of his loot for his own use and showed little, if any concern for the general welfare of the country. Nadir concentrated all power in his own hands. He was a brilliant soldier and the founder of the Persian navy, but he was entirely lacking any interest in art and literature. His monarchy came to an end in 1746. Nadir was Persia's most gifted military genius and is known as "The Second Alexander" and "The Napoleon of Persia". Although he restored national independence and effectively protected Iran's territorial integrity at a dark moment of the country's history, he was  obsessive (neurotic), suspicions and jealous at others.

Nadir Shah, motivated by his courage and valour,  forced many disciplines  strict orders and harsh punishments to those who served him. However, he rewarded and adorned those who were prepared to sacrifice their life to  protect him and his honour.
LEBBAI'S SERVICES
Source for English version of Quran Quotes
http://soundvision.com/info "Aalampana" is a Farsi+Urudhu word prevailed in ancient India, to address a highly respected great Emperor with obedience.
************************************

A TYPICAL LEBBAI OF POTTALPUDHUR
After 1740, particularly, the cooks and the food servers in Nadir's palace were  trembling by being not able to adjust to his changing food tastes and serving formalities,  During 1741, a traveler  by name “Haji Abdul Lebbai”  from a place called Pottalpudhur (in Ambasamudram Taluka, Tirunelveli district, Tamil nadu, India) visited Nadir to pay his good wishes, as well as to expose his versatility in the Holy Quran. By profession Abdul Lebbai is a good cook. During his pilgrimage to Mecca in that year, he keenly observed and studied the recipes of Arabia and the cooking methodologies of the Iranian pilgrims. 

  • DELIGHTFUL DINNER
    Nadhir offered him a stay in an out house of the Delhi palace, and Lebbai requested to be his cook and food server during his stay, even though the home-cooks cautioned him, about the risk he was taking and the dangerous consequences by serving him. Lebbai prepared and served his speacility item - "Bulgur Wheat Pilaf" (See Recipe below) for lunch, with other favourite side dishes cooked by his Irano-Indian cooks. Nadhir was very happy not only because of the tasty item, but also for the Lebbi's obedience, love and courteous services. He called Lebbai and asked him "Where you learnt these ?". Lebbai humbly replied "Aalampana. I had never been to any formal school. But as  a Haji, where else I can learn these, except from the Holy Quran ? Then he recited the Quran verse "
    Allah (Peace be on him) hath made a means of support for you, but feed and clothe his subjects therewith, and speak to them words of kindness and justice (004.005)". Nadhir was exalted and presented him 100 Gold Moharas (A Mohara is an unit coin minted on about 1.125 grams of 22 Carat gold).

  • SOLACING SURAS (Chapters of Qaran)
    One day a server happend to be not properly dressed. When Nadir questioned him, the server said he did not notice it, and prayed to forgive him. Nadir ordered to remove  his left eye for failing to notice important disciplines. Then Lebbai appealed to Nadir to remove his eye instead of the eye of the poor server, having a family and 4 young children, in the age group of 2 to 5 years. Nadir was annoyed and said that the Lebbai's left hand should be removed for such an uncalled intervention. Lebbai said he will be happy to loose both his left eye and  left hand, if the poor server is pardoned.  Further he said "I request this to pour the mercy of Allah (Peace be with him) on you as well as your
    5 sons and 15 grandsons. Because, the Holy Quran has taught this poor  Lebbai, that If you come to a friendly understanding, and practice self- restraint, Allah, the Most Merciful is Often forgiving  (004.129) and We shall leave the wrong-doers therein, (humbled) to their knees (019.072)". That was the first occasion, a poor server was pardoned in the home of Nadir. Similarly, many self-motivated evil activities of Nadir were solaced (smoothened) by Lebbai  both by his Cooking, service abilities and his exemplary knowledge on Quran.

  • SPILL & SPOUT FOR SLAUGHTER.
    One night Lebbai was serving a favourite soup to Nadir. Lebbai's right  hand cuff button of his shirt suddenly opened and due to that irritation, he spilt the soup on the front cloth of Nadir. Lebbai was fully aware and sure that his hand or even his head will be cut for this negligent act. All the cooks and servers stared and started shivering to see what is going to happen next ??. To everybody's as well as Nadir's surprise, Lebbai performed an amazing act !! He poured all the soup stock in the vessel,  over the head of Nadir. Nadir was annoyed beyond control as he had an unique and a life-time experience of an open-home insult !! Because of a background respect on Lebbai, he angrily asked "How dare you did this to me ??". Lebbai laughed and said "Allahu Akbar (God is Great). Alampana, If I had stopped after the initial spill, I am fully aware that you are going to order to cut my head. But the people  will feel in their mind that you are cruel to  order a capital punishment for a small spill, without understanding the truth and justification in your action.  As your humble server, I decided to sacrifice my life to  protect you and your honour. So, I poured the soup on your head. Now if you cut my head, all your subjects will see the correctness in your judgment, and honour you more and more". Nadir asked "Foolish Lebbai, how dare you acted on such a dangerous path ?". Lebbai said "Aalampana, where else this poor Lebbai can get such  meaningful acts, other than Quran !!  I know
     We shall save those (Kings) who guarded the people against evil (019.072), and Allah (Peace be upon Him) accepts  the sacrifices of those who are righteous (in protecting the Ruler) (005.027)".

LEVITATED LEBBAI
Nadir immediately ordered and elevated Lebbai as a "Royal Chief Cook" and "Chief Imam (Prayer Leader)" of the "Royal Masjid (Prayer centre)".
************************************
MORAL : Persons with open mind and straight forward thoughts are universally acceptable to all people, irrespective of their mental attitudes, behaviour patterns and their Home locations. Select the right directive guide book offering the correct action methodologies. Understand the inner meanings of such directives, follow and apply in practice. Do not be afraid of any rightful act and behaviour, even though it looks irrelevant to the circumstances and environment. Then the whole universe is in your favour.
***FINE MAT OF POTTALPUDHUR*****************************POTTALPUDHUR DHARGA****
 
 SHOPPING
  POTTALPUTHUR  LEBBAI
In Tamil Pottal = Open Yard,
Pudhu =  New and  Oor = A location with livable Homes.


Pottalputhoor was developed as back as 1600s by the local Lebbai community Muslims, by converting a vast vacant space into a village for new progress and prosperity. It is located just a few meters off the "Rama Nadhi" river entering the first human habited area called "Ravana samudram".  Before this point, the river travels  several miles through the rocks, fertile fields, flora and fauna, after its origin from the top of the Western Ghat range of mountains in Kadayam. Pottalpudhur is a business village with Handloom cloth and Decorative mat (See above) weaving.
The mats are made from  a grass called "Korai",  belonging to the sedge family of plants Cyperaceae, growing on the banks of the river Rama Nadhi. The mats induct a high degree of muscle relaxation, body comfort and mental peace to the person sitting or sleeping on it, due to the accumulation / storage of the herbal extracts from the river's flow-path, in the fibre content. It is a typical village where all different communities live together with harmony, peace and share the fortunes of life
For more details See
:
http://pottalpudur.com/index.htm (Tamil site with English interface)

   FLOWER LINE
KOH-I-NOOR DIAMOND   STORY OF KOH-I-NOOR DIAMOMD 
 
               (MADE IN INDIA !!)                      
SOURCE     SHOPPING  http://www.dancewithshadows.com/society/
kohinoor-diamond-india.asp 
(Article by
Harpreet Kaur)

http://forums.goldenmine.com/archive/
index.php/t-433.html
http://www.diamondeducation.net/history.html
WHAT IS A DIAMOND

The word “diamond” is derived from the Greek "Adamas," which means unconquerable. This is fitting because diamonds are the hardest known substance to man.  In fact, the majority of diamonds mined today are not manufactured as jewelry, but are utilised in industrial tool for cutting, because of the hardness of this gem. Diamonds are minerals made of almost pure crystallized carbon ( 99.95%-C4 ).  They are formed millions of years earlier, at depths greater than 75 miles (About 121 Kilo Meters) below the earth's surface. Here the necessary temperature and pressure are present to create this unique gemstone.  Over the years diamonds have been brought closer to the earth's surface by volcanic eruptions where miners are able to collect them today.

KOH-I-NOOR  DIAMOND (KHD)

Koh-I-Noor in persian means the "Mountain of Light". It weighs 108.93 carats (About 22 grams and it is a round brilliant cut diamond). The legendary Koh-i-noor Diamond has been in the eye of the storm ever since it left the hands of its original owners - a diamond which was never bought or sold, but changed many hands. KHD has left a trail that speaks of greed, power, murder,  and unhappiness
. According to all references, Koh-i-noor was never that great, to look at in its early days. It was just another diamond that was dull, non-sparkling and a little yellow in appearance. 
ORIGIN & POSSESSION OF KHD
Many legends refer to the KHD as a precious stone mined in India, at least 4,000 years before. According to some historical sources, the Koh-i-noor diamond was found in the Godavari river in central India. Tradition associated with it, states that its owner will rule the world, but that to possess it is dangerous for any other than a woman. The authentic history of this jewel begins in the 14th
century, when it was reported to be in the possession of the kings of Malwa. Babar (1494 to 1530 AD, who founded the Moghul Empire in India) got this diamond in Gujarat or Deccan. There are references as when  Babar came to Agra in May 1526, the ruler Vikramaditya gave him the great diamond. There is also evidence to prove that his son Humayun carried a large diamond. So it was known as Babar’s diamond for the next 200 years, up to 1730 AD. 
There are still so many unresolved questions surrounding the precious stone. Information gathered over the years show that in fact, three diamonds existed from 1500s to 1800s AD  : -

  • The Great Mogul diamond, was the Orlov, weighing 189.62 metric carats, in Kremlin.
    Babar's diamond  was the Darya-i-noor, weight 175 gm and 195 metric carats.
    The Iranian Crown Jewels and the KHD re-cut, Crown Jewels, which ended in England. 

MOGHULS
In 1738, Delhi was ruled by Mohammed Shah and he possessed the famous Peacock Throne and the KHD. He kept the hiding place of KHD as a secret. A member of Shah’s harem gave away the hiding place of KHD to one of the Nadir Shah’s soldiers,  as “Shah was keeping it hidden in his turban”. So, Nadir Shah devised an ingenious  plan. He ordered a grand feast to coincide with the restoration of Mohammed Shah to his throne. During the feast, Nadir Shah suddenly proposed an exchange of turbans, a sign of brotherly ties and eternal friendship. Mohammed Shah was not able  to resist this proposal. After the exchange, Nadir Shah entered his private apartment at night, where he unfolded the turban and found the KHD concealed within. When he set his eyes on it, he exclaimed "Koh-i-noor", meaning "Mountain of Light". 
After Nadir’s regim in 1746 AD, the KHD was in the possession of Shah Shuja-Ul-Mulk.  The next sixty years of its history (up to 1806 AD) were the most violent and bloodstained. The final owner of KHD was the Maharaja Duleep Singh. He was the son of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the ruler of Punjab from Lahore. It was in the backdrop of the two Sikh Wars leading to the annexation of Punjab by the British Governor General Lord Dalhousie (1848-1856 AD). The hoisting of British flag was on March 29th, 1849 at Lahore, where Punjab was formally proclaimed a part of the British Empire in India. One of the terms of the Treaty of Lahore was the "The gem called the KHD which was taken from Shah Shuja-Ul-Mulk by Maharajah Ranjit Singh shall be surrendered by the Maharajah of Lahore to the Queen of England." 
KHD – POSSER'S PROBLEMS
Dr Sir John Login was entrusted with two charges : to take the KHD out of the Toshakhana (the Jewel House), and also the guardsmanship of the young Duleep Singh. It was formally handed over to the Punjab government of Sir Henry Lawrence (1806-1857), his younger brother John
Lawrence (afterwards Lord Lawrence, the man who in February of 1859 inaugurated the Lahore railroad station), and C.C. Mausel.
The KHD sailed from Bombay in H.M.S. Medea. It left the shores of India on 6th April  1850. It was put in an iron box and kept in a dispatch box and deposited in the Government Treasury. For security reasons, this piece of news was suppressed, even among officers of the Treasury - and withheld from Commander Lockyer, the ship's captain.
HMS Medea's voyage turned out to be a perilous one - cholera broke out on board in Mauritius and the local people demanded its departure. They asked their governor to open fire and destroy the vessel if it did not respond. After leaving Mauritius, a severe gale hit the vessel that lasted for about twelve hours. They reached Plymouth, England, where the passengers and the mail were unloaded, but not KHD, which was forwarded to Portsmouth.  From there, it reached London on July 2, 1850. Two hip officers took the diamond to the East India House, handing it over to the Board of Directors of the East India Company. Sir J.W. Logg. The Deputy Chairman of the East India Company, presented it to Queen Victoria. The queen recorded in her journal: "The jewels are truly magnificent. They had also belonged to Ranjit Singh and had been found in the treasury of Lahore.... I am very happy that the British Crown will possess these jewels for I shall certainly make them Crown Jewels".
KHD – RESHAPING
Prince Albert (Prince Consort) and Sebastian Garrard stated that the KHD was badly cut, it is rose-not-brilliant-cut. It was decided to seek the advice of practical and experienced diamond cutters. A small steam engine was set up at Garrard's shop, while two gentlemen, Mr Coster, Mr. Voorzanger and Mr. Fedder, travelled to London to undertake the re-cutting of the diamond. The Koh-i-noor was embedded in lead, two weeks later, after examining the stone. Mitchell thought that it had lost nearly all its yellow colour and become much whiter. The re-cutting took 38 days and cost 8,000 ($40,000). The final result was an oval brilliant diamond weighing 108.93 metric carats, which meant a loss of weight of just under 43 per cent. Its was now in stellar brilliant-cut, possessing the regular 33 facets, including the table, while the pavilion has eight more facets than the regular 25 bringing the total number of facets to 66. 
In 1853, it was mounted on a magnificent tiara for the Queen, which contained more than two thousand diamonds. Five years later, Queen Victoria ordered a new regal circlet for the diamond. In 1911, Garrards made a new crown that Queen Mary wore for the coronation - it contained diamonds, among them the Koh-i-noor. In 1937, this was transferred to the crown made for Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother, based on Queen Victoria's regal circlet and is set in a Maltese Cross at the front of the crown. 
105.602  Carats, 21.61 Grams,
Approximate value 11,000 Million (British Pounds)  OR $ 16,863 Million (US Dollars)  OR  1,90,435 Crores (Indian Rupees).

KHD - THE CONTROVERSY
The 20th century saw a war of words over KHD and its rightful ownership. In 1947 the government of India asked for the return of the diamond.  The Congress Ministry which ruled Orissa staked claim to the stone, saying it belonged to the Lord Jagannath. Ranjit Singh's treasurer mentioned that it was the property of their estate. In 1947, Pakistan also claimed the diamond as it was the property of the King of Punjab, with Lahore as Capital, which is in their territory. Shortly thereafter, a major newspaper in Teheran stated that the gem should to be returned to Iran, as it was possessed for over 200 years by the Iranian rulers of India. 
Sir Olaf has pointed out that the KHD had been in Mogul possession in Delhi for 213 years, in Afghan possession in Kandahar and Kabul for 66 years and in British possession for 127 years. Historically, it maybe difficult to pass judgement on the validity of the various claims, but on the other hand, from a gemological aspect, as a paper report said, the Indian claim is the most valid because it was in that country where it was mined.  Another supporting fact is the Mogul Emperors kept and enjoyed the Diamond for 213 years in Delhi, their capital in India.
KHD - THE STOLEN STONE - BUT WORTH WATCHITOWER OF LONONNG 
LONDON TOWER BRIDGE
Many still await the many treasures which were “stolen” by the British Raj, because nobody officially bought it, paid a price and do not possess any document to establish their ownership.  But today, if you happen to visit London, please make a stopover at Tower of London (Near Tower Bridge) and look at the Crown Jewels of the Queen and the KHD placed in her crown up front inside a Maltese cross (Photo on Top).
MORAL : Taking away and enjoying other's wealth is called "Stealing" at individual level, and it is punishable. But acquiring high value and large volume properties from others, by an army force is called "Heroism" and the possessor is respected and honoured. The acquired wealth could be a land, precious stones or even petroleum (oil) !!. All the people on this Earth feel that the Earth, Seas, Sky and Water belong to themselves, as there is a documented proof created by the Earthly people. But these are the properties of the  Sun, head of the Solar family in particular , and  a greater power behind it,  in General.

 HOME - THEME RECIPE  BULGUR WHEATPOTtALPUDHUR TEMPLE PILAF   Mixing fruits and fruit syrups in the daily diet at Home is an exclusive invention of the Persians.   Bulgur is a Persian word to denote crushed and parched (roasted) wheat.  Pilaf  is a methodology of cooking a grain and vegetables together.  This recipe is easy to make, and quick to prepare. Indian cooks blended the Iranian specialities and built an Indo-Iranian blend. The Pilaf later adopted  as a common "Pulav" in every Indian home.
SOURCE : Haji Mohammed Lebbai. (4th Generation Grandson of  Haji Abdul Lebbai) of Pottalpudhur. Local Hotel owner and Maulvi (Prayer guide) of the local Darga (Attached Prayer hall in the  cemetry of the Muslim saints).
INGARDIENTS (For about 7 Serves)
Almonds - 1 Tea cup.  Blanched (Briefly toasted in low heat to
                  golden colour) and  flaked.  golden colour.
Apricots -1 Tea cup. Dried, soaked in water for 30 minutes,
                 drained and chopped.

Black gram - 1 Tea spoon. Skin removed full or half.
Boiled Vegetables - 1 Tea cup. Beans, Brinjal, Carrot,
                                  Pumpkin and Tomato (Finely chopped)

Bulgur Wheat - 2 Tea cups. Crushed and Parched (Toasted in
                           low heat), washed, soaked in cold water for 30
                           minutes and drained

Curry leaves - 10 Numbers - Cleaned & Washed.
Dates  - 1/2 Tea cup. Seedless and chopped.
Fresh Flavour Ghee
 - 1/2 Tea Cup.
Green Pepper - 1 large pepper, white pith and seeds removed,
                           seeds removed and roughly chopped.
Mustard - 1 Tea spoon.
Onion  - 1 medium-sized, roughly chopped.
Raisins - 1/2 Tea cup. Seedless.
Salt - 1 Teaspoon.
Turmeric - 1/2 Teaspoon.
PREPARATION
01. In a medium-sized saucepan, melt the Fresh Flavour Ghee,
      over moderate heat.
02. When the fumes come out, add musturd seeds. When it
      sparcles, add Curry leaves. When it is fried,  add the onion
      and green pepper (The sequence of adding is important)
      and fry, stirring occasionally, for about 6 minutes or until
      the onion is soft and translucent but not brown and the
      green pepper is soft.
03. Add Turmeric powder, Salt and stir well.
04. Add the apricots, dates and  seedless raisins. Cook, stirring
      constantly, for 2 minutes.
05. Add the Bulgar Wheat + 5 Tea cups of water and cook,
      stirring constantly, for 5 minutes.
06. Pour in the Cooked vegetables.
07. When the mixture comes to the boil, cover the pan, reduce
       the heat to low and simmer the pilaff for 15 to 20 minutes
      or until the wheat is tender and all the liquid has been
      absorbed.
08. Add and stir in the toasted almonds.
09. Spoon out the pilaf on to a warmed serving full plate, and
     serve immediately.
10. Alternatively, cover the pan tightly and keep it in a warm
      oven until the guests are  ready to eat.
MORAL : The constructive and positive aspect of Internal invasions are the blending of culture and upgraded dietary.          

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