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 01.FACULTYSHIPS
      ASSOCIATION
      COLLEGE
      CORPORATE
      GOVERNMENT
      INSTITUTIONS
      PRECAUTIONS
      SCHOOLS
      SOCIETIES
      UNIVERSITIES    
      VIEWER'S VIEWS
      WISDOM  
 02. INNOVATION
     
A. BIO-CHEMISTRY
      B. ENMALISP
      C. EXAMPLES
      D. MAIN CONCEPTS
      E. MATHEMATICS
      F.  CATALYST
     
G. MUSIC
      H. COLOUR DISC
       I. ORGANIC
      J.  INORGANIC
      K. PHYSICS

      L. STUDIOUS
      M. VIEWER'S VIEWS

 03. MANAGEMENT 
      
A. ARTILECT  
       B
. BE HAPPY
       C.
CONCEPTS
       D. DETAILS
       E. INDIRA GANDHI
       F. NOBEL
       G. POLI-FINANCE
       H. SLIDE SHOW
 
      I. SUMMARY    
      J. SUPPORTS
      K. VIEWER'S VIEWS  
          MANAGEMENT
          PRODUCTIVITY

 04. MOTIVATION
     
A. ARITHMETIC
      B. BESTPEDAL
      C. EPOCH MAKERS
      D. HANDICAPPED
      E. LEADS FOR

          SELF 
          SOCIAL
      F. SELF
MOTIVATION
          EXAMPLES
          DESTRUCTIVE
      G. SOCIAL MOTIVATN
          EXAMPLES
          DESTRUCIVE
  
  H. VIEWER'S VIEWS

 05.   MUSIC 
        
A. ARABIAN
         B. COLOUR CDs
         C. DIATONIC

        
D. EASTERN
        
E. INNOVATION
        
F. RAGAMS
         G. TEMPERED
        
H. VIEWER'S VIEWS
         I.  WESTERN
    -------------------------- 
 
05A. HEXOCTAL
        
A. ADMIRATION
         B. ARABIC
         C. CODE SET
         D. DIATONIC
         E. ENGLISH
         F. GERMAN
         G. HINDI
         H. KARNATAK
         I . KARNATAK KB
        J. MELODY
        K. PRIMARY RAGAM
        L. PUSHTU
        M. SCOTTISH          
        N.  TEMPERED
        O. URUDU    
    
   P. VIEWER'S VIEWS

 06. NEW-CONCEPTS 
     
A. DEVELOPMENT
      B. PHYSICS
 07. PUBLICATIONS    
     
A. ARTICLES
          ECONOMICS
          PRODUCTIVITY
          MANPOWER
          MATERIALS
          RESOURCE
          R & D
          TRAINING
      B.BOOKS
      C. REPEC
      D. SSRN  
 08. QUOTATIONS
       A. WORDS
       B. PICTURES  
           ANIMALS
           BIOLOGY
           BIRDS
           BOTANICAL
           BUILDINGS
           FLOWERS
           FRUITS
           HISTORICAL
           INSTITUTIONS
           LANDSCAPES
           MONUMENTS 
           NATURE
           PLANTS
           TRANSPORT
           TREES
            SPORTS
            STARS 
      
C. VIEWER'S VIEWS 
 09. SMART-THOUGHTS
      
A. ALEXANDER
       B. ACHIEVEMENT
       C. ECONOMICS
       D. LION
       E. PHILOSOPHY
       F. SCIENCE
       G. TSUMANI
       H. UNIVERSE

       I. VIEWER'S VIEWS
 10. SOCIO-ECONOMIC
       A. ARTILECT        
       B. BUSH

      
C. CONCEPTS
       D DETAILS
       E. INDIRA GANDHI
       F. NOBEL
       G. POLI-FINANCE
       H. SLIDE SHOW
       
I. SUMMARY          
      J. SUPPORTS
      K. VIEWER'S VIEW   
 11. SOFTWARE (SW)
       A. APPLICATION
      
B. ARTILECT 
       C. BOOTING       
    
  D. CORPORATE
       E. DESIGNS
       F. HARDARE
       G. JOB SW
       H. OP.SYSTEM
       I. ORGANISATION SW
      J. SW QUALITY
      K. SW UTILITY
      L. UTILITY SW
      M
. VIEWER'S VIEW      
 12.  STARS & SKY     
      
A. ASTRONOMY
       B. CONSTELLATIONS
           INDIAN
           WESTERN
       C. ENMALISP
       D. GREEK ALFA
       E. MID NORTH
       F. NORTH NORTH
       G. STARS
            INDIAN
            WESTERN 
       H. SUN
       I. VIEWER'S VIEW
      J. ZODIAC
 13. VIEWR'S VIEWS
       ABOUT DRVSRS     
       DEVELOPMENT   
       COUNTRY
       FACULTY
       FEED BACK
       INNOVATION
       MANAGEMENT
       MOTIVATION
       MUSIC
       NAMES
       PRODUCTIVITY
       PROFESSION
       QUOTATIONS
       SOFTWARE
       STARS
       TOPICS 
       VIEWER'S VIEWS
       WEB CLASSES
 14. KEY-WORDS
        FAQ   A TO Z
       ANIMATIONS
       FLAGS
       HAPPY
       JOKES
       MELODIES
       QUOTATIONS
 15. DR.VSRS
       A. ABOUT 
       B. ACADEMIC
       C. ACHIEVEMENT
       D. ASSIGNMENTS
       E. ASSISTANCE
       F. BOOKS
       G. CDB, BARBADOS
       H. CFTC, LONDON
       I. CONTACT          
      J.  FAMILY TREE
       K.  HOME  
       L. INNOVATIONS
       M. ISO 90001:2000
       N. NOBEL 
       O. PRIME PAPERS
       P. QUALITY AUDITOR
       Q. SITE MAP
       R. SOCIAL WORK
       S. VIEWER'S VIEWS
       T. WORLD TRAVEL       
 16.  CLOSE  

SPECIALITY

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 ANIMATION OF HAPPINESS - CLICK
 JOKES MENU - CLICK    LAUGH
 MATTER  SMART - CLICK
 MELODY MENU - CLICK
 PICTURE MENU - CLICK
 QUOTATIONS - CLICK
RECIPES

FEATURES

Contact :  Dr.VSRS  

GO TO HOME PAGE

 A.  ASSISTANCE
 B BOOKS
 F.   
 H.  HELP (FAQ)
  L.    LATEST SITE
  S.  SITE MAP

 ENTERTAINERS

Contact : Dr.VSRS  

GO TO HOME PAGE

WORLD WIDE WEB IN MOTION

WINK ON SITE

LOVE AT SITE

SING WITH SITE

DANCE OVER SITE

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.PERSONAL 
Web-Site DESIGNED & MAINTAINED BY
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ON THE WEB FROM AUGUST 01, 2001

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CIRCLES MENU CIRCLES

 01.FACULTYSHIPS
      ASSOCIATION
      COLLEGE
      CORPORATE
      GOVERNMENT
      INSTITUTIONS
      PRECAUTIONS
      SCHOOLS
      SOCIETIES
      UNIVERSITIES    
      VIEWER'S VIEWS
      WISDOM  
 02. INNOVATION
     
A. BIO-CHEMISTRY
      B. ENMALISP
      C. EXAMPLES
      D. MAIN CONCEPTS
      E. MATHEMATICS
      F.  CATALYST
     
G. MUSIC
      H. COLOUR DISC
       I. ORGANIC
      J.  INORGANIC
      K. PHYSICS

      L. STUDIOUS
      M. VIEWER'S VIEWS

 03. MANAGEMENT 
      
A. ARTILECT  
       B
. BE HAPPY
       C.
CONCEPTS
       D. DETAILS
       E. INDIRA GANDHI
       F. NOBEL
       G. POLI-FINANCE
       H. SLIDE SHOW
 
      I. SUMMARY    
      J. SUPPORTS
      K. VIEWER'S VIEWS  
          MANAGEMENT
          PRODUCTIVITY

 04. MOTIVATION
     
A. ARITHMETIC
      B. BESTPEDAL
      C. EPOCH MAKERS
      D. HANDICAPPED
      E. LEADS FOR

          SELF 
          SOCIAL
      F. SELF
MOTIVATION
          EXAMPLES
          DESTRUCTIVE
      G. SOCIAL MOTIVATN
          EXAMPLES
          DESTRUCIVE
  
  H. VIEWER'S VIEWS

 05.   MUSIC 
        
A. ARABIAN
         B. COLOUR CDs
         C. DIATONIC

        
D. EASTERN
        
E. INNOVATION
        
F. RAGAMS
         G. TEMPERED
        
H. VIEWER'S VIEWS
         I.  WESTERN
    -------------------------- 
 
05A. HEXOCTAL
        
A. ADMIRATION
         B. ARABIC
         C. CODE SET
         D. DIATONIC
         E. ENGLISH
         F. GERMAN
         G. HINDI
         H. KARNATAK
         I . KARNATAK KB
        J. MELODY
        K. PRIMARY RAGAM
        L. PUSHTU
        M. SCOTTISH          
        N.  TEMPERED
        O. URUDU    
    
   P. VIEWER'S VIEWS

 06. NEW-CONCEPTS 
     
A. DEVELOPMENT
      B. PHYSICS
 07. PUBLICATIONS    
     
A. ARTICLES
          ECONOMICS
          PRODUCTIVITY
          MANPOWER
          MATERIALS
          RESOURCE
          R & D
          TRAINING
      B.BOOKS
      C. REPEC
      D. SSRN  
 08. QUOTATIONS
       A. WORDS
       B. PICTURES  
           ANIMALS
           BIOLOGY
           BIRDS
           BOTANICAL
           BUILDINGS
           FLOWERS
           FRUITS
           HISTORICAL
           INSTITUTIONS
           LANDSCAPES
           MONUMENTS 
           NATURE
           PLANTS
           TRANSPORT
           TREES
            SPORTS
            STARS 
      
C. VIEWER'S VIEWS 
 09. SMART-THOUGHTS
      
A. ALEXANDER
       B. ACHIEVEMENT
       C. ECONOMICS
       D. LION
       E. PHILOSOPHY
       F. SCIENCE
       G. TSUMANI
       H. UNIVERSE

       I. VIEWER'S VIEWS
 10. SOCIO-ECONOMIC
       A. ARTILECT        
       B. BUSH

      
C. CONCEPTS
       D DETAILS
       E. INDIRA GANDHI
       F. NOBEL
       G. POLI-FINANCE
       H. SLIDE SHOW
       
I. SUMMARY          
      J. SUPPORTS
      K. VIEWER'S VIEW   
 11. SOFTWARE (SW)
       A. APPLICATION
      
B. ARTILECT 
       C. BOOTING       
    
  D. CORPORATE
       E. DESIGNS
       F. HARDARE
       G. JOB SW
       H. OP.SYSTEM
       I. ORGANISATION SW
      J. SW QUALITY
      K. SW UTILITY
      L. UTILITY SW
      M
. VIEWER'S VIEW      
 12.  STARS & SKY     
      
A. ASTRONOMY
       B. CONSTELLATIONS
           INDIAN
           WESTERN
       C. ENMALISP
       D. GREEK ALFA
       E. MID NORTH
       F. NORTH NORTH
       G. STARS
            INDIAN
            WESTERN 
       H. SUN
       I. VIEWER'S VIEW
      J. ZODIAC
 13. VIEWR'S VIEWS
       ABOUT DRVSRS     
       DEVELOPMENT   
       COUNTRY
       FACULTY
       FEED BACK
       INNOVATION
       MANAGEMENT
       MOTIVATION
       MUSIC
       NAMES
       PRODUCTIVITY
       PROFESSION
       QUOTATIONS
       SOFTWARE
       STARS
       TOPICS 
       VIEWER'S VIEWS
       WEB CLASSES
 14. KEY-WORDS
        FAQ   A TO Z
       ANIMATIONS
       FLAGS
       HAPPY
       JOKES
       MELODIES
       QUOTATIONS
 15. DR.VSRS
       A. ABOUT 
       B. ACADEMIC
       C. ACHIEVEMENT
       D. ASSIGNMENTS
       E. ASSISTANCE
       F. BOOKS
       G. CDB, BARBADOS
       H. CFTC, LONDON
       I. CONTACT          
      J.  FAMILY TREE
       K.  HOME  
       L. INNOVATIONS
       M. ISO 90001:2000
       N. NOBEL 
       O. PRIME PAPERS
       P. QUALITY AUDITOR
       Q. SITE MAP
       R. SOCIAL WORK
       S. VIEWER'S VIEWS
       T. WORLD TRAVEL       
 16.  CLOSE  

SPECIALITY

Contact :  Dr.VSRS  

GO TO HOME PAGE

 ANIMATION OF HAPPINESS - CLICK
 JOKES MENU - CLICK    LAUGH
 MATTER  SMART - CLICK
 MELODY MENU - CLICK
 PICTURE MENU - CLICK
 QUOTATIONS - CLICK
RECIPES

FEATURES

Contact :  Dr.VSRS  

GO TO HOME PAGE

 A.  ASSISTANCE
 B BOOKS
 F.   
 H.  HELP (FAQ)
  L.    LATEST SITE
  S.  SITE MAP

 ENTERTAINERS

Contact : Dr.VSRS  

GO TO HOME PAGE

WORLD WIDE WEB IN MOTION

WINK ON SITE

LOVE AT SITE

SING WITH SITE

DANCE OVER SITE

Contact :  Dr.VSRS  

GO TO HOME PAGE

WEB DETAILS

Contact : Dr.VSRS  

GO TO HOME PAGE

.PERSONAL 
Web-Site DESIGNED & MAINTAINED BY
Intellectual Consultants
.

ON THE WEB FROM AUGUST 01, 2001

LAST UPDATE

RESEARCH &
DEVELOPMENT
CENTRE
RePEc  SSRN

Expert

3

Contact :   Dr.VSRS

 GET 
CLICK & GET DRVSRS TOOL BAR
 TOOL BAR

GO TO HOME PAGE

CIRCLES MENU CIRCLES

 01.FACULTYSHIPS
      ASSOCIATION
      COLLEGE
      CORPORATE
      GOVERNMENT
      INSTITUTIONS
      PRECAUTIONS
      SCHOOLS
      SOCIETIES
      UNIVERSITIES    
      VIEWER'S VIEWS
      WISDOM  
 02. INNOVATION
     
A. BIO-CHEMISTRY
      B. ENMALISP
      C. EXAMPLES
      D. MAIN CONCEPTS
      E. MATHEMATICS
      F.  CATALYST
     
G. MUSIC
      H. COLOUR DISC
       I. ORGANIC
      J.  INORGANIC
      K. PHYSICS

      L. STUDIOUS
      M. VIEWER'S VIEWS

 03. MANAGEMENT 
      
A. ARTILECT  
       B
. BE HAPPY
       C.
CONCEPTS
       D. DETAILS
       E. INDIRA GANDHI
       F. NOBEL
       G. POLI-FINANCE
       H. SLIDE SHOW
 
      I. SUMMARY    
      J. SUPPORTS
      K. VIEWER'S VIEWS  
          MANAGEMENT
          PRODUCTIVITY

 04. MOTIVATION
     
A. ARITHMETIC
      B. BESTPEDAL
      C. EPOCH MAKERS
      D. HANDICAPPED
      E. LEADS FOR

          SELF 
          SOCIAL
      F. SELF
MOTIVATION
          EXAMPLES
          DESTRUCTIVE
      G. SOCIAL MOTIVATN
          EXAMPLES
          DESTRUCIVE
  
  H. VIEWER'S VIEWS

 05.   MUSIC 
        
A. ARABIAN
         B. COLOUR CDs
         C. DIATONIC

        
D. EASTERN
        
E. INNOVATION
        
F. RAGAMS
         G. TEMPERED
        
H. VIEWER'S VIEWS
         I.  WESTERN
    -------------------------- 
 
05A. HEXOCTAL
        
A. ADMIRATION
         B. ARABIC
         C. CODE SET
         D. DIATONIC
         E. ENGLISH
         F. GERMAN
         G. HINDI
         H. KARNATAK
         I . KARNATAK KB
        J. MELODY
        K. PRIMARY RAGAM
        L. PUSHTU
        M. SCOTTISH          
        N.  TEMPERED
        O. URUDU    
    
   P. VIEWER'S VIEWS

 06. NEW-CONCEPTS 
     
A. DEVELOPMENT
      B. PHYSICS
 07. PUBLICATIONS    
     
A. ARTICLES
          ECONOMICS
          PRODUCTIVITY
          MANPOWER
          MATERIALS
          RESOURCE
          R & D
          TRAINING
      B.BOOKS
      C. REPEC
      D. SSRN  
 08. QUOTATIONS
       A. WORDS
       B. PICTURES  
           ANIMALS
           BIOLOGY
           BIRDS
           BOTANICAL
           BUILDINGS
           FLOWERS
           FRUITS
           HISTORICAL
           INSTITUTIONS
           LANDSCAPES
           MONUMENTS 
           NATURE
           PLANTS
           TRANSPORT
           TREES
            SPORTS
            STARS 
      
C. VIEWER'S VIEWS 
 09. SMART-THOUGHTS
      
A. ALEXANDER
       B. ACHIEVEMENT
       C. ECONOMICS
       D. LION
       E. PHILOSOPHY
       F. SCIENCE
       G. TSUMANI
       H. UNIVERSE

       I. VIEWER'S VIEWS
 10. SOCIO-ECONOMIC
       A. ARTILECT        
       B. BUSH

      
C. CONCEPTS
       D DETAILS
       E. INDIRA GANDHI
       F. NOBEL
       G. POLI-FINANCE
       H. SLIDE SHOW
       
I. SUMMARY          
      J. SUPPORTS
      K. VIEWER'S VIEW   
 11. SOFTWARE (SW)
       A. APPLICATION
      
B. ARTILECT 
       C. BOOTING       
    
  D. CORPORATE
       E. DESIGNS
       F. HARDARE
       G. JOB SW
       H. OP.SYSTEM
       I. ORGANISATION SW
      J. SW QUALITY
      K. SW UTILITY
      L. UTILITY SW
      M
. VIEWER'S VIEW      
 12.  STARS & SKY     
      
A. ASTRONOMY
       B. CONSTELLATIONS
           INDIAN
           WESTERN
       C. ENMALISP
       D. GREEK ALFA
       E. MID NORTH
       F. NORTH NORTH
       G. STARS
            INDIAN
            WESTERN 
       H. SUN
       I. VIEWER'S VIEW
      J. ZODIAC
 13. VIEWR'S VIEWS
       ABOUT DRVSRS     
       DEVELOPMENT   
       COUNTRY
       FACULTY
       FEED BACK
       INNOVATION
       MANAGEMENT
       MOTIVATION
       MUSIC
       NAMES
       PRODUCTIVITY
       PROFESSION
       QUOTATIONS
       SOFTWARE
       STARS
       TOPICS 
       VIEWER'S VIEWS
       WEB CLASSES
 14. KEY-WORDS
        FAQ   A TO Z
       ANIMATIONS
       FLAGS
       HAPPY
       JOKES
       MELODIES
       QUOTATIONS
 15. DR.VSRS
       A. ABOUT 
       B. ACADEMIC
       C. ACHIEVEMENT
       D. ASSIGNMENTS
       E. ASSISTANCE
       F. BOOKS
       G. CDB, BARBADOS
       H. CFTC, LONDON
       I. CONTACT          
      J.  FAMILY TREE
       K.  HOME  
       L. INNOVATIONS
       M. ISO 90001:2000
       N. NOBEL 
       O. PRIME PAPERS
       P. QUALITY AUDITOR
       Q. SITE MAP
       R. SOCIAL WORK
       S. VIEWER'S VIEWS
       T. WORLD TRAVEL       
 16.  CLOSE  

SPECIALITY

Contact :  Dr.VSRS  

GO TO HOME PAGE

 ANIMATION OF HAPPINESS - CLICK
 JOKES MENU - CLICK    LAUGH
 MATTER  SMART - CLICK
 MELODY MENU - CLICK
 PICTURE MENU - CLICK
 QUOTATIONS - CLICK
RECIPES

FEATURES

Contact :  Dr.VSRS  

GO TO HOME PAGE

 A.  ASSISTANCE
 B BOOKS
 F.   
 H.  HELP (FAQ)
  L.    LATEST SITE
  S.  SITE MAP

 ENTERTAINERS

Contact : Dr.VSRS  

GO TO HOME PAGE

WORLD WIDE WEB IN MOTION

WINK ON SITE

LOVE AT SITE

SING WITH SITE

DANCE OVER SITE

Contact :  Dr.VSRS  

GO TO HOME PAGE

WEB DETAILS

Contact : Dr.VSRS  

GO TO HOME PAGE

.PERSONAL 
Web-Site DESIGNED & MAINTAINED BY
Intellectual Consultants
.

ON THE WEB FROM AUGUST 01, 2001

LAST UPDATE

RESEARCH &
DEVELOPMENT
CENTRE
RePEc  SSRN

Expert

4

Contact :   Dr.VSRS

 GET 
CLICK & GET DRVSRS TOOL BAR
 TOOL BAR

GO TO HOME PAGE

CIRCLES MENU CIRCLES

 01.FACULTYSHIPS
      ASSOCIATION
      COLLEGE
      CORPORATE
      GOVERNMENT
      INSTITUTIONS
      PRECAUTIONS
      SCHOOLS
      SOCIETIES
      UNIVERSITIES    
      VIEWER'S VIEWS
      WISDOM  
 02. INNOVATION
     
A. BIO-CHEMISTRY
      B. ENMALISP
      C. EXAMPLES
      D. MAIN CONCEPTS
      E. MATHEMATICS
      F.  CATALYST
     
G. MUSIC
      H. COLOUR DISC
       I. ORGANIC
      J.  INORGANIC
      K. PHYSICS

      L. STUDIOUS
      M. VIEWER'S VIEWS

 03. MANAGEMENT 
      
A. ARTILECT  
       B
. BE HAPPY
       C.
CONCEPTS
       D. DETAILS
       E. INDIRA GANDHI
       F. NOBEL
       G. POLI-FINANCE
       H. SLIDE SHOW
 
      I. SUMMARY    
      J. SUPPORTS
      K. VIEWER'S VIEWS  
          MANAGEMENT
          PRODUCTIVITY

 04. MOTIVATION
     
A. ARITHMETIC
      B. BESTPEDAL
      C. EPOCH MAKERS
      D. HANDICAPPED
      E. LEADS FOR

          SELF 
          SOCIAL
      F. SELF
MOTIVATION
          EXAMPLES
          DESTRUCTIVE
      G. SOCIAL MOTIVATN
          EXAMPLES
          DESTRUCIVE
  
  H. VIEWER'S VIEWS

 05.   MUSIC 
        
A. ARABIAN
         B. COLOUR CDs
         C. DIATONIC

        
D. EASTERN
        
E. INNOVATION
        
F. RAGAMS
         G. TEMPERED
        
H. VIEWER'S VIEWS
         I.  WESTERN
    -------------------------- 
 
05A. HEXOCTAL
        
A. ADMIRATION
         B. ARABIC
         C. CODE SET
         D. DIATONIC
         E. ENGLISH
         F. GERMAN
         G. HINDI
         H. KARNATAK
         I . KARNATAK KB
        J. MELODY
        K. PRIMARY RAGAM
        L. PUSHTU
        M. SCOTTISH          
        N.  TEMPERED
        O. URUDU    
    
   P. VIEWER'S VIEWS

 06. NEW-CONCEPTS 
     
A. DEVELOPMENT
      B. PHYSICS
 07. PUBLICATIONS    
     
A. ARTICLES
          ECONOMICS
          PRODUCTIVITY
          MANPOWER
          MATERIALS
          RESOURCE
          R & D
          TRAINING
      B.BOOKS
      C. REPEC
      D. SSRN  
 08. QUOTATIONS
       A. WORDS
       B. PICTURES  
           ANIMALS
           BIOLOGY
           BIRDS
           BOTANICAL
           BUILDINGS
           FLOWERS
           FRUITS
           HISTORICAL
           INSTITUTIONS
           LANDSCAPES
           MONUMENTS 
           NATURE
           PLANTS
           TRANSPORT
           TREES
            SPORTS
            STARS 
      
C. VIEWER'S VIEWS 
 09. SMART-THOUGHTS
      
A. ALEXANDER
       B. ACHIEVEMENT
       C. ECONOMICS
       D. LION
       E. PHILOSOPHY
       F. SCIENCE
       G. TSUMANI
       H. UNIVERSE

       I. VIEWER'S VIEWS
 10. SOCIO-ECONOMIC
       A. ARTILECT        
       B. BUSH

      
C. CONCEPTS
       D DETAILS
       E. INDIRA GANDHI
       F. NOBEL
       G. POLI-FINANCE
       H. SLIDE SHOW
       
I. SUMMARY          
      J. SUPPORTS
      K. VIEWER'S VIEW   
 11. SOFTWARE (SW)
       A. APPLICATION
      
B. ARTILECT 
       C. BOOTING       
    
  D. CORPORATE
       E. DESIGNS
       F. HARDARE
       G. JOB SW
       H. OP.SYSTEM
       I. ORGANISATION SW
      J. SW QUALITY
      K. SW UTILITY
      L. UTILITY SW
      M
. VIEWER'S VIEW      
 12.  STARS & SKY     
      
A. ASTRONOMY
       B. CONSTELLATIONS
           INDIAN
           WESTERN
       C. ENMALISP
       D. GREEK ALFA
       E. MID NORTH
       F. NORTH NORTH
       G. STARS
            INDIAN
            WESTERN 
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       I. VIEWER'S VIEW
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       TOPICS 
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       D. ASSIGNMENTS
       E. ASSISTANCE
       F. BOOKS
       G. CDB, BARBADOS
       H. CFTC, LONDON
       I. CONTACT          
      J.  FAMILY TREE
       K.  HOME  
       L. INNOVATIONS
       M. ISO 90001:2000
       N. NOBEL 
       O. PRIME PAPERS
       P. QUALITY AUDITOR
       Q. SITE MAP
       R. SOCIAL WORK
       S. VIEWER'S VIEWS
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      SOCIETIES
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A. BIO-CHEMISTRY
      B. ENMALISP
      C. EXAMPLES
      D. MAIN CONCEPTS
      E. MATHEMATICS
      F.  CATALYST
     
G. MUSIC
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       I. ORGANIC
      J.  INORGANIC
      K. PHYSICS

      L. STUDIOUS
      M. VIEWER'S VIEWS

 03. MANAGEMENT 
      
A. ARTILECT  
       B
. BE HAPPY
       C.
CONCEPTS
       D. DETAILS
       E. INDIRA GANDHI
       F. NOBEL
       G. POLI-FINANCE
       H. SLIDE SHOW
 
      I. SUMMARY    
      J. SUPPORTS
      K. VIEWER'S VIEWS  
          MANAGEMENT
          PRODUCTIVITY

 04. MOTIVATION
     
A. ARITHMETIC
      B. BESTPEDAL
      C. EPOCH MAKERS
      D. HANDICAPPED
      E. LEADS FOR

          SELF 
          SOCIAL
      F. SELF
MOTIVATION
          EXAMPLES
          DESTRUCTIVE
      G. SOCIAL MOTIVATN
          EXAMPLES
          DESTRUCIVE
  
  H. VIEWER'S VIEWS

 05.   MUSIC 
        
A. ARABIAN
         B. COLOUR CDs
         C. DIATONIC

        
D. EASTERN
        
E. INNOVATION
        
F. RAGAMS
         G. TEMPERED
        
H. VIEWER'S VIEWS
         I.  WESTERN
    -------------------------- 
 
05A. HEXOCTAL
        
A. ADMIRATION
         B. ARABIC
         C. CODE SET
         D. DIATONIC
         E. ENGLISH
         F. GERMAN
         G. HINDI
         H. KARNATAK
         I . KARNATAK KB
        J. MELODY
        K. PRIMARY RAGAM
        L. PUSHTU
        M. SCOTTISH          
        N.  TEMPERED
        O. URUDU    
    
   P. VIEWER'S VIEWS

 06. NEW-CONCEPTS 
     
A. DEVELOPMENT
      B. PHYSICS
 07. PUBLICATIONS    
     
A. ARTICLES
          ECONOMICS
          PRODUCTIVITY
          MANPOWER
          MATERIALS
          RESOURCE
          R & D
          TRAINING
      B.BOOKS
      C. REPEC
      D. SSRN  
 08. QUOTATIONS
       A. WORDS
       B. PICTURES  
           ANIMALS
           BIOLOGY
           BIRDS
           BOTANICAL
           BUILDINGS
           FLOWERS
           FRUITS
           HISTORICAL
           INSTITUTIONS
           LANDSCAPES
           MONUMENTS 
           NATURE
           PLANTS
           TRANSPORT
           TREES
            SPORTS
            STARS 
      
C. VIEWER'S VIEWS 
 09. SMART-THOUGHTS
      
A. ALEXANDER
       B. ACHIEVEMENT
       C. ECONOMICS
       D. LION
       E. PHILOSOPHY
       F. SCIENCE
       G. TSUMANI
       H. UNIVERSE

       I. VIEWER'S VIEWS
 10. SOCIO-ECONOMIC
       A. ARTILECT        
       B. BUSH

      
C. CONCEPTS
       D DETAILS
       E. INDIRA GANDHI
       F. NOBEL
       G. POLI-FINANCE
       H. SLIDE SHOW
       
I. SUMMARY          
      J. SUPPORTS
      K. VIEWER'S VIEW   
 11. SOFTWARE (SW)
       A. APPLICATION
      
B. ARTILECT 
       C. BOOTING       
    
  D. CORPORATE
       E. DESIGNS
       F. HARDARE
       G. JOB SW
       H. OP.SYSTEM
       I. ORGANISATION SW
      J. SW QUALITY
      K. SW UTILITY
      L. UTILITY SW
      M
. VIEWER'S VIEW      
 12.  STARS & SKY     
      
A. ASTRONOMY
       B. CONSTELLATIONS
           INDIAN
           WESTERN
       C. ENMALISP
       D. GREEK ALFA
       E. MID NORTH
       F. NORTH NORTH
       G. STARS
            INDIAN
            WESTERN 
       H. SUN
       I. VIEWER'S VIEW
      J. ZODIAC
 13. VIEWR'S VIEWS
       ABOUT DRVSRS     
       DEVELOPMENT   
       COUNTRY
       FACULTY
       FEED BACK
       INNOVATION
       MANAGEMENT
       MOTIVATION
       MUSIC
       NAMES
       PRODUCTIVITY
       PROFESSION
       QUOTATIONS
       SOFTWARE
       STARS
       TOPICS 
       VIEWER'S VIEWS
       WEB CLASSES
 14. KEY-WORDS
        FAQ   A TO Z
       ANIMATIONS
       FLAGS
       HAPPY
       JOKES
       MELODIES
       QUOTATIONS
 15. DR.VSRS
       A. ABOUT 
       B. ACADEMIC
       C. ACHIEVEMENT
       D. ASSIGNMENTS
       E. ASSISTANCE
       F. BOOKS
       G. CDB, BARBADOS
       H. CFTC, LONDON
       I. CONTACT          
      J.  FAMILY TREE
       K.  HOME  
       L. INNOVATIONS
       M. ISO 90001:2000
       N. NOBEL 
       O. PRIME PAPERS
       P. QUALITY AUDITOR
       Q. SITE MAP
       R. SOCIAL WORK
       S. VIEWER'S VIEWS
       T. WORLD TRAVEL       
 16.  CLOSE  

SPECIALITY

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FEATURES

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 A.  ASSISTANCE
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 01.FACULTYSHIPS
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      INSTITUTIONS
      PRECAUTIONS
      SCHOOLS
      SOCIETIES
      UNIVERSITIES    
      VIEWER'S VIEWS
      WISDOM  
 02. INNOVATION
     
A. BIO-CHEMISTRY
      B. ENMALISP
      C. EXAMPLES
      D. MAIN CONCEPTS
      E. MATHEMATICS
      F.  CATALYST
     
G. MUSIC
      H. COLOUR DISC
       I. ORGANIC
      J.  INORGANIC
      K. PHYSICS

      L. STUDIOUS
      M. VIEWER'S VIEWS

 03. MANAGEMENT 
      
A. ARTILECT  
       B
. BE HAPPY
       C.
CONCEPTS
       D. DETAILS
       E. INDIRA GANDHI
       F. NOBEL
       G. POLI-FINANCE
       H. SLIDE SHOW
 
      I. SUMMARY    
      J. SUPPORTS
      K. VIEWER'S VIEWS  
          MANAGEMENT
          PRODUCTIVITY

 04. MOTIVATION
     
A. ARITHMETIC
      B. BESTPEDAL
      C. EPOCH MAKERS
      D. HANDICAPPED
      E. LEADS FOR

          SELF 
          SOCIAL
      F. SELF
MOTIVATION
          EXAMPLES
          DESTRUCTIVE
      G. SOCIAL MOTIVATN
          EXAMPLES
          DESTRUCIVE
  
  H. VIEWER'S VIEWS

 05.   MUSIC 
        
A. ARABIAN
         B. COLOUR CDs
         C. DIATONIC

        
D. EASTERN
        
E. INNOVATION
        
F. RAGAMS
         G. TEMPERED
        
H. VIEWER'S VIEWS
         I.  WESTERN
    -------------------------- 
 
05A. HEXOCTAL
        
A. ADMIRATION
         B. ARABIC
         C. CODE SET
         D. DIATONIC
         E. ENGLISH
         F. GERMAN
         G. HINDI
         H. KARNATAK
         I . KARNATAK KB
        J. MELODY
        K. PRIMARY RAGAM
        L. PUSHTU
        M. SCOTTISH          
        N.  TEMPERED
        O. URUDU    
    
   P. VIEWER'S VIEWS

 06. NEW-CONCEPTS 
     
A. DEVELOPMENT
      B. PHYSICS
 07. PUBLICATIONS    
     
A. ARTICLES
          ECONOMICS
          PRODUCTIVITY
          MANPOWER
          MATERIALS
          RESOURCE
          R & D
          TRAINING
      B.BOOKS
      C. REPEC
      D. SSRN  
 08. QUOTATIONS
       A. WORDS
       B. PICTURES  
           ANIMALS
           BIOLOGY
           BIRDS
           BOTANICAL
           BUILDINGS
           FLOWERS
           FRUITS
           HISTORICAL
           INSTITUTIONS
           LANDSCAPES
           MONUMENTS 
           NATURE
           PLANTS
           TRANSPORT
           TREES
            SPORTS
            STARS 
      
C. VIEWER'S VIEWS 
 09. SMART-THOUGHTS
      
A. ALEXANDER
       B. ACHIEVEMENT
       C. ECONOMICS
       D. LION
       E. PHILOSOPHY
       F. SCIENCE
       G. TSUMANI
       H. UNIVERSE

       I. VIEWER'S VIEWS
 10. SOCIO-ECONOMIC
       A. ARTILECT        
       B. BUSH

      
C. CONCEPTS
       D DETAILS
       E. INDIRA GANDHI
       F. NOBEL
       G. POLI-FINANCE
       H. SLIDE SHOW
       
I. SUMMARY          
      J. SUPPORTS
      K. VIEWER'S VIEW   
 11. SOFTWARE (SW)
       A. APPLICATION
      
B. ARTILECT 
       C. BOOTING       
    
  D. CORPORATE
       E. DESIGNS
       F. HARDARE
       G. JOB SW
       H. OP.SYSTEM
       I. ORGANISATION SW
      J. SW QUALITY
      K. SW UTILITY
      L. UTILITY SW
      M
. VIEWER'S VIEW      
 12.  STARS & SKY     
      
A. ASTRONOMY
       B. CONSTELLATIONS
           INDIAN
           WESTERN
       C. ENMALISP
       D. GREEK ALFA
       E. MID NORTH
       F. NORTH NORTH
       G. STARS
            INDIAN
            WESTERN 
       H. SUN
       I. VIEWER'S VIEW
      J. ZODIAC
 13. VIEWR'S VIEWS
       ABOUT DRVSRS     
       DEVELOPMENT   
       COUNTRY
       FACULTY
       FEED BACK
       INNOVATION
       MANAGEMENT
       MOTIVATION
       MUSIC
       NAMES
       PRODUCTIVITY
       PROFESSION
       QUOTATIONS
       SOFTWARE
       STARS
       TOPICS 
       VIEWER'S VIEWS
       WEB CLASSES
 14. KEY-WORDS
        FAQ   A TO Z
       ANIMATIONS
       FLAGS
       HAPPY
       JOKES
       MELODIES
       QUOTATIONS
 15. DR.VSRS
       A. ABOUT 
       B. ACADEMIC
       C. ACHIEVEMENT
       D. ASSIGNMENTS
       E. ASSISTANCE
       F. BOOKS
       G. CDB, BARBADOS
       H. CFTC, LONDON
       I. CONTACT          
      J.  FAMILY TREE
       K.  HOME  
       L. INNOVATIONS
       M. ISO 90001:2000
       N. NOBEL 
       O. PRIME PAPERS
       P. QUALITY AUDITOR
       Q. SITE MAP
       R. SOCIAL WORK
       S. VIEWER'S VIEWS
       T. WORLD TRAVEL       
 16.  CLOSE  

SPECIALITY

Contact :  Dr.VSRS  

GO TO HOME PAGE

 ANIMATION OF HAPPINESS - CLICK
 JOKES MENU - CLICK    LAUGH
 MATTER  SMART - CLICK
 MELODY MENU - CLICK
 PICTURE MENU - CLICK
 QUOTATIONS - CLICK
RECIPES

FEATURES

Contact :  Dr.VSRS  

GO TO HOME PAGE

 A.  ASSISTANCE
 B BOOKS
 F.   
 H.  HELP (FAQ)
  L.    LATEST SITE
  S.  SITE MAP

 ENTERTAINERS

Contact : Dr.VSRS  

GO TO HOME PAGE

WORLD WIDE WEB IN MOTION

WINK ON SITE

LOVE AT SITE

SING WITH SITE

DANCE OVER SITE

Contact :  Dr.VSRS  

GO TO HOME PAGE

WEB DETAILS

Contact : Dr.VSRS  

GO TO HOME PAGE

.PERSONAL 
Web-Site DESIGNED & MAINTAINED BY
Intellectual Consultants
.

ON THE WEB FROM AUGUST 01, 2001

LAST UPDATE

RESEARCH &
DEVELOPMENT
CENTRE
RePEc  SSRN

Expert

7

Contact :   Dr.VSRS

 GET 
CLICK & GET DRVSRS TOOL BAR
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CIRCLES MENU CIRCLES

 01.FACULTYSHIPS
      ASSOCIATION
      COLLEGE
      CORPORATE
      GOVERNMENT
      INSTITUTIONS
      PRECAUTIONS
      SCHOOLS
      SOCIETIES
      UNIVERSITIES    
      VIEWER'S VIEWS
      WISDOM  
 02. INNOVATION
     
A. BIO-CHEMISTRY
      B. ENMALISP
      C. EXAMPLES
      D. MAIN CONCEPTS
      E. MATHEMATICS
      F.  CATALYST
     
G. MUSIC
      H. COLOUR DISC
       I. ORGANIC
      J.  INORGANIC
      K. PHYSICS

      L. STUDIOUS
      M. VIEWER'S VIEWS

 03. MANAGEMENT 
      
A. ARTILECT  
       B
. BE HAPPY
       C.
CONCEPTS
       D. DETAILS
       E. INDIRA GANDHI
       F. NOBEL
       G. POLI-FINANCE
       H. SLIDE SHOW
 
      I. SUMMARY    
      J. SUPPORTS
      K. VIEWER'S VIEWS  
          MANAGEMENT
          PRODUCTIVITY

 04. MOTIVATION
     
A. ARITHMETIC
      B. BESTPEDAL
      C. EPOCH MAKERS
      D. HANDICAPPED
      E. LEADS FOR

          SELF 
          SOCIAL
      F. SELF
MOTIVATION
          EXAMPLES
          DESTRUCTIVE
      G. SOCIAL MOTIVATN
          EXAMPLES
          DESTRUCIVE
  
  H. VIEWER'S VIEWS

 05.   MUSIC 
        
A. ARABIAN
         B. COLOUR CDs
         C. DIATONIC

        
D. EASTERN
        
E. INNOVATION
        
F. RAGAMS
         G. TEMPERED
        
H. VIEWER'S VIEWS
         I.  WESTERN
    -------------------------- 
 
05A. HEXOCTAL
        
A. ADMIRATION
         B. ARABIC
         C. CODE SET
         D. DIATONIC
         E. ENGLISH
         F. GERMAN
         G. HINDI
         H. KARNATAK
         I . KARNATAK KB
        J. MELODY
        K. PRIMARY RAGAM
        L. PUSHTU
        M. SCOTTISH          
        N.  TEMPERED
        O. URUDU    
    
   P. VIEWER'S VIEWS

 06. NEW-CONCEPTS 
     
A. DEVELOPMENT
      B. PHYSICS
 07. PUBLICATIONS    
     
A. ARTICLES
          ECONOMICS
          PRODUCTIVITY
          MANPOWER
          MATERIALS
          RESOURCE
          R & D
          TRAINING
      B.BOOKS
      C. REPEC
      D. SSRN  
 08. QUOTATIONS
       A. WORDS
       B. PICTURES  
           ANIMALS
           BIOLOGY
           BIRDS
           BOTANICAL
           BUILDINGS
           FLOWERS
           FRUITS
           HISTORICAL
           INSTITUTIONS
           LANDSCAPES
           MONUMENTS 
           NATURE
           PLANTS
           TRANSPORT
           TREES
            SPORTS
            STARS 
      
C. VIEWER'S VIEWS 
 09. SMART-THOUGHTS
      
A. ALEXANDER
       B. ACHIEVEMENT
       C. ECONOMICS
       D. LION
       E. PHILOSOPHY
       F. SCIENCE
       G. TSUMANI
       H. UNIVERSE

       I. VIEWER'S VIEWS
 10. SOCIO-ECONOMIC
       A. ARTILECT        
       B. BUSH

      
C. CONCEPTS
       D DETAILS
       E. INDIRA GANDHI
       F. NOBEL
       G. POLI-FINANCE
       H. SLIDE SHOW
       
I. SUMMARY          
      J. SUPPORTS
      K. VIEWER'S VIEW   
 11. SOFTWARE (SW)
       A. APPLICATION
      
B. ARTILECT 
       C. BOOTING       
    
  D. CORPORATE
       E. DESIGNS
       F. HARDARE
       G. JOB SW
       H. OP.SYSTEM
       I. ORGANISATION SW
      J. SW QUALITY
      K. SW UTILITY
      L. UTILITY SW
      M
. VIEWER'S VIEW      
 12.  STARS & SKY     
      
A. ASTRONOMY
       B. CONSTELLATIONS
           INDIAN
           WESTERN
       C. ENMALISP
       D. GREEK ALFA
       E. MID NORTH
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It is a Safe Site. Java Script is used only to display the Date and Time. If  "To help protect your security" line is on the top - 01. Left click  On "To help protect your security".  02.  "Allow blocked content" in the displayed window. 03. "Yes" in  Security warning window.  It shall also help you to get a full view of this page contents . Books/Products are on safe Popup windows. Double click on the link if a caution message is displayed - DR.VSRS

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"It is less important to have unanimity than it is making the right decision and doing the right thing, even though at the outset it may seem lonesome"
By US Defence Secretary Donald Rumsfeld on 29th August 2002. From the Middle East Economic Digest (MEED), 30th August 2002. Page 2

  FROM VIEWER'S VIEWS - Management & Productivity
I
am looking forward to your earliest reply to the same email address, as a we are working on a research project on effective management tools for government sectors in developing countries - Dr.Malvyn Copen
Here I provide the exhaustive details on how every aspect of Socio-Economic Development, Management Input / Output factors could be quantified,  in order to assist your research project - DR.VSRS 
You talk of productivity by Socioeconomic goals. What it has to do with me
Angello Bocelli
Unless every industry think and do something about this, the nation cannot survive, continue and progress - DR.VSRS

FROM VIEWER'S VIEWS - Socio-Economic Development Acceleration
How it will help a person like me  by your writing a mathematical paper like this in the internet ??? - Kanthimathi
This is what I say in the Internet as local resources and local man-power has to be used to support the local social and economic development. Government alone cannot do it - DR.VSRS
I analysed this(Housing) loan scheme and found out that it is not actually giving either the uplifting or the comfortable living - Peter Kemoli
It has induced an indirect advantage of domestic saving potential for the medium class person, by drastically reducing the monthly deductions and  increasing the monthly disposable income - DR.VSRS
After a careful analysis of your research findings, I have come to a firm conclusion that these concepts are important for the progress of government sub divisions like the States, Districts and Villages - Arun.S. Patel
I am happy to find that an ingenious person like you in a responsible government assignment could find an application of my concepts to the Micro State, District and Village level. You have really broadened their scope and their utility -  
DR.VSR
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AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT BANK AFRICA (GLOBAL)   Support for Economics & Management   Concepts of DR.VSRS     (SEE CONCEPTS)


AL TIJARAH, Journal of the Sharjah Chamber of commerce & Industry, Sharjah, UAE. September 2002. Page 18 to 24.

African markets are still among the promising ones in the globe, and many countries, mainly industrial countries, strive hard to have an influential and effective presence there, amid several facilities and attractions, as the North knows what it wants from the South. Africa abounds with a huge wealth of oil, minerals, primary materials, animal and agricultural resources, besides vast surfaces of arable land that can present a food basket for the whole world. However this wealth is possessed by countries exhausted with poverty, disease and wars triggered by imperialist powers, followed by battles that demolish everything and open the way to the foreign influence. African countries began during the past decade moving towards some stability, in a bid to join the race of civilization for the well being of their people. However, these attempts tumbled under the impact of financial deficit suffered by these countries. The huge wealth they have need huge funds in order to be utilized, which compels these countries to sell their raw materials at low prices, and then import them manufactured at high prices.... Recent years witnessed serous efforts to develop the volume of trade exchange and open investment channels in African markets, which enhances the Arab presence at the markets.... Al Tijarah, out of its conviction of the high significance of this issue, conducted a series of interviews to present its readers with the comprehensive reportage.... Mr. Al Musharrikh said "From my personal experience, as a member of the delegation that visited these countries, I can say that these countries enjoy tremendous potentials, but they need funds to be employed at different investment fields. Arab investor did not overlook this fact, but most of them are hesitant to invest in Africa because of social backwardness, political instability and administrative and personal corruption from the point of view of these investors...". Mr. Al Musharrikh mentioned, "When I was in Ethiopia, I met a Pakistani investor holding American passport. He left the U.S.A and settled in Ethiopia where he obtained a large piece of land and established a flower farm on it, as climate conditions are favourable. Now, he exports flowers to many European countries, achieving good profit.".... The Adviser on Economic Relations and International Cooperation called for creating a mechanism for cooperation, coordination and integration between Arab countries and their transaction with African markets, even between concerned parties within U.A.E. coordinated, he said, is the basis for success, and Arab countries should, instead of competing each other, distribute the roles between them..... (African Markets and the means of utilizing them - Cover Story)

Concept Support : Any amount of natural wealth and ability to invest, are more influenced by the intangible aspects like psychological, social, political and international influences, than the tangible quantum and profit volume potentials. Hence, the management decision should give more weight-age to the intangible aspects.

Any foreign investment to start with, should plan and direct their approach towards the implementation of latest technology moderated to suit the local conditions, manned by the domestic (African) manpower. Then only the domestic conditions of social backwardness, political instability and administrative / personal corruption will change and develop confidence and productive operating conditions to the foreign investors (Endogenous aspect or Cooperation / distributed roles).

Over a period of time, incentive should be provided to bring in the domestic investment from domestic savings, with local participation, so that the root of social backwardness, political instability and administrative / personal corruption is fully eradicated (Exogenous aspect or Coordination / integration).

Quantum turnover and volume of profit in the foreground alone should not be a directive criteria for the productive development of the investor as well as the domestic setup, but Socio-economic development in the background should also be considered with equal importance, for a long range progress for both the investor and the beneficiery.

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ARGENTINA

ARGENTINA  Support for Economics & Management   Concepts of     DR.VSRS     (SEE CONCEPTS)

GULF NEWS (UAE), Business, August 19, 2001 ( Sunday ),  Page 21

Argentina is under growing pressure from investors to obtain new aid to help the country avert default, as official enter a ninth day of talks with the International Monetary Fund. Argentina's bonds staged their biggest drop in three weeks yesterday on concern that any announcement of new from IMF may still be days or even weeks away.   Investors sent the benchmark stock index plunging 6 per cent. Daniel Marx, who's   heading Argentina's efforts in Washington to obtain as much as $ 9 billion to shore up reserves, had few encouraging words.... Marx said Argentine officials are expanding their talks to include discussions with the U.S. and other rich nations, and with the World Bank. Those conversations are focusing on "strengthening the current programme", he said, suggesting the country has hit a roadblock in its bid for fresh assistance.... Michael Gavin, head of Latin American research at UBS, Warburg LLC said "But I don't see an implosion unless negotiations go off track"  {Washington (Bloomberg) "Argentina reels under pressure"}

Concept Support : The general approach built among  the developing nations, is that,  as long as the rich nations and the international funding agencies are there, they can continue to exist and survive, irrespective of their activities related to the internal economic affairs. A country gets into economic pressure only because of the non-synchronisation of the Endogenous circle (human potential utilisation) and the Exogenous circle (domestic saving generation). Unless every developing / under-developed nations look into these internal aspects, and stop a blind dependence on external aspects for help, the economic pressures and  show-downs will continue to crop up.

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AUSTRALIA

AUSTRALIA  Support for Economics & Management   Concepts of  DR.VSRS       (SEE CONCEPTS)


FRIDAY (UAE),  Weekly Friday Magazine of Gulf Today, August 10-16,   2001,  Page 41

People don't know what  to make the Sydney Opera House, when it opened in 1973. Some thought the sharply angled roofline was a nautical allusion to sails or waves.   Others said the thing looked like a spiky lizard crawling out of the muck to sun itself.  As we walked the curved promenade to the building, I thought the peaks resembled the pointy helmets of Spanish conquistadors.  The architect would probably disagree with all of us.  Joern Utzon saw the design as an exercise in deconstruction : a sphere peeled into segments like an orange to form a living sculpture..... Utzon was an obscure Danish architect when he won an international competition for the commission in 1957.  It was  a radical choice that grew more controversial as he spent his six years figuring out how to engineer his fantastic imaginings.  In the mean time, the price rose fourteenfold and the state of New South Wales had to sell millions of dollars in lottery tickets to pay for it.  Irritated by money troubles and political meddling, Utzon resigned from the job in 1966, and the cavernous interior had to be completed by a consortium of Australian architects.  Now in his 80s, he has never returned to see his masterpiece.  Utzon's estrangement isn't the only melancholy note in the Opera House aria. (Get to see Sydney. By Jim Auchmutey)

Concept Support : Even individuals as well as  developed national decision makers should be cautious in their plans and actions with reference to the nation, and its Socio-economic objectives. Unthinkable and marvellous infrastructures are needed, but at a lower priority to the essential and prime national  needs.  Productivity and the quantum aspects of any in-flow of resources should be pre-evaluated with reference to the Socio-economic scales and standards at first. Lack of this precaution will result only in a degree of dis-satisfaction and a questionable aspect of achievement, however marvellous,   intelligent and imaginative they  may be.       

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BAHAMAS

BAHAMAS  Support for Economics & Management   Concepts of  DR.VSRS  (SEE CONCEPTS)

FT EXPAT (FINANCIAL TIMES), UK. October 2001. Page 43.

The archipelago of Bahamas is described as a developing nation, albeit stable, with an economy heavily dependent on tourism and off-shore financial services, especially banking and fund administration. Tourism alone accounts for more than 60 per cent of GDP and directly employs more than 40 per cent of the labour force. There are also large number of North Americans and Europeans retirees living there. Largely due to the strength of the tourist industry, Bahamas continues to enjoy both macroeconomic stability and economic growth. Persistently low levels of inflation dispelled fears of economic overheating in 2000, and this has remained at less than 2 per cent for five years running. Over all growth prospects in the short run will depend heavily on the fortunes of tourism sector and continued income growth in US, which provides most tourists.... And the future ? "In the context of global economy, the Bahamas depends, of course, in the economic situation in the Americas, particularly the US, and from continued growth in Europe," says Christian Kalin, Director of Zurich-based consultancy firm Henley & Partners. Mr. Kalin adds that the business environment has become very friendly in the last few years. "But naturally" he warns, "a recession in parts of the world will have a considerable impact on the economic development of the Bahamas". {PROPERTY,  Caribbean Dream, The Bahamian Economy}.

Concept Support : This is a typical example of a developing economy, which directly depends on the ups and downs of the economic fluctuations of developed nations, If these developing countries have to look in-wards, and create an atmosphere of there own economy and its continued development, the tools are the control/synchronisation of the Exogenous (Domestic capital for Domestic investment) and the Endogenous (Domestic labour for moderated Domestic Technology) circular effects . The existing administrative set-up should look into these aspects immediately or otherwise, the domestic economy will continue to fluctuate with reference to that of the developed ones, without any domestic identity and progress.

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BANGLA DESH

  BANGLA DESH  Support for Economics & Management Concepts
  of   DR.VSRS      
(SEE CONCEPTS)

THE INDIAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
(ISSN 0019-5561), April - June 2001. Pages 153 to 169.

New Public management (NPM) has become a catchword in most countries in the world. It conjures up an image enmeshed with minimal government, debureaucratisation, decentralisation, market orientation of public services, contracting out, privatisation, performance management etc.... Like many other countries, Bangladesh has decided belatedly to embark on implementing NPM programme. (Conclusion).. The current state of public administrative system, the socio-economic realities and the specific nature of Bangladesh state pose binding constraints to the successful implementation of NPM programme. Since 1972, governments of Bangladesh have been trying to reform the administrative system. Accordingly, numerous commissions and committees have been were constituted and they came up with different sets of recommendations. The stark reality is that very few recommendations were implemented in the past. In the last 10 years, vocabulary of NPM came under the purview of the international donor agencies and national planners.... On account of current socio-political, economic and administrative realities in Bangladesh, the recommendations along the thinking of NPM are difficult to implement. It is important for Bangladesh to rethink about the contents of reform. First, modernisation of public administration requires parallel advances in market sector. Secondly, the contents of the reform should focus more on establishing reliable external controls. They are building blocks for a formal, rule-based and honest public sector . Thirdly, the focus should be on basic process of public management. Officials must be able to control inputs before they are called upon to control outputs.
{ " New   Public  management  in  Bangladesh : Chasing a Mirage ?" by Abu Elias Sarker, Assistant Professor, Department of Public Administration, College of Business Management, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, UAE }

Concept Support : This is an analysis and finding of the fact that Socio-Economic Development cannot be accelerated by mere administrative reforms and public management re-orientation, in line with modern jargons. As outlined in the end of summary : Firstly,   parallel advances in market sector could be achieved by re-orienting / evaluating the Productivity and Management Decision aspects with reference to Socio-Economic goals, than Physical outputs. Secondly, establishing reliable external controls could be achieved by considering intangible (non-measurable like psycho / socio / international / universal in nature) elements in Management Decision process, as more important contents, than the tangible (measurable / quantum) aspects. Thirdly, control of inputs before being called upon to control outputs, is to orient towards Domestic investments through Domestic resources (Exogenous input control), and moderated and practical Domestic Technology manned, by Domestic Manpower (Endogenous input control).

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CHINA

 CHINA  Support for Economics & Management   Concepts of  
 DR.VSRS     
(SEE CONCEPTS)

VIA INMARSAT (UK). October - December 2002. Page 40 - 43.

Visions of China.
China is a country of extremes and nothing illustrates this more than its communications infrastructure. There is a huge difference between the commercially developed eastern China and Hong Kong, and rural and mountainous areas elsewhere.... Many sectors are still under state control in China, including the media, disaster relief provisions, the safety community and emergency services. However the regulatory system for owning and using satcom services in China is almost archaic (out dated) in its complexity. Change in China clearly runs at varying speeds. However, some observers believe the admission of China to the World
Trade Organisation may result in reduced bureaucracy for many services, including satcom.... Chinese national airlines for over a decade, working with Thales Avionics to provide seven-channel satcom systems.... Chinese authorities have ambitious plans to develop a national telemedicine network to deliver better healthcare. However, large parts of the country do not have medical services. The cost of travel is prohibitive for people in remote areas, so that they can be disenfranchised from adequate healthcare resources...

The changing Face of China
According to US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), in 2000 there were only 135 million terrestrial telephone lines and 65 million cellular phone lines in the country. The CIA's general assessment on the state of Chinese telephony states : "Domestic and international services are increasingly available for public use; an unevenly distributed domestic system serves principal cities, industrial centers and many towns." China has also developed domestic satellite network with 55 earth stations recorded in 2001, along with Inmarsat gateway operator, Beijing MCN, serving the Pacific and Indian ocean regions. There we 22 million Internet users in 2001, served by three Internet Service Providers. Uneven as it may be, the development of Chinese communications infrastructure is moving quickly and smoothly in a straight direction. A recent report by China research corporation shows that 100 per cent annual growth have occurred in cellular phone adoption over the past five years. China's telecom industry also reshaping into a more integrated structure, merging with PTT interests into larger organisations capable of sustaining the development effort, supported by large budgets made available by central government, It appears the Chinese are skipping a generation of technology, going into broad band communications as away of future-proofing new services.

Concept Support : Historically, the first documented era of China starts with the Shang Dynasty in 1766 to 1922 B.C. The Peoples Republic of China was established by Mao Tse-Tung (Mao Zedong) on October 1, 1949 AD, with reforms on Land, Social, Thought and the Economic plan. Subsequent to the cultural revolution in April 1966 AD, China with the top population in the world, remained as a Communist country, specifically closing its channels of communications to the world. But China as a thickly populated country had a tough responsibility to provide the basic needs and employment to the domestic population, as wells as to upgrade its techno-commercial infrastructure (Endogenous responsibility). Also as a country behind the great wall, has a commitment to improve and escalate the domestic investments from the internal sources (Exogenous responsibility).

But the unilateral state controlled corporate sectors inducted an inadequacy to its Endogenous responsibility and closure of the doors to the techno-commercial development taking place outside the great wall, blocked the opportunity to the path of its Exogenous responsibility. This is advantageously understood and accepted after the wall-breaking merger of the communist East Germany with the capitalist West Germany on October 1990, and the disintegration of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic on 31st December 1991 (USSR - A communist union of Eastern European and Northern Asian countries, established in 1922).

China has opened its doors to adopt and moderated  latest technology to suit the local conditions, from the outer non-communist world (by skipping a generation of technology), in the communication as well as manufacturing, service and all other sectors, with domestic manpower utility. China also opened its channel to private domestic investments. Now, anywhere in the world, the toughest and fearful under-cutting competitor to any common man's product, simple electrical / electronic items, is China. Even the sales quantum of similar items, from top class manufacturers in Europe or USA are drastically reduced due to the presence of "Made in China" products. These are in line with the Exogenous and Endogenous concepts of my research work.

However, the quality and performance aspects of the cheaply available Chinese products are debatable. It is because of the fact that change in China is at varying speeds, due to lack of optimum and timely Management Decision methodology. China considers quantum output and flooding the international markets with cheap products as a tool for progress, than a dynamic Socio-Economic Development oriented long term Productivity approach. This is in line with my research concepts in the area of Management Decision and redefined Productivity approach.

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ESTONIA

  ESTONIA  Support for Economics & Management   Concepts of 
  DR.VSRS                    
(SEE CONCEPTS)           

LSM (Lloyds Ship Management), ISSN 0265:2455, July - August 2001,
Page 35-36.

The shortfall of officers predicted by last year's updated Bimco/ISF manpower survey could under estimate the problem, Petter Larsen, managing director of Barber Ship Management, told delegates at the LSM European Manning and Training Conference in Tallinn, Estonia, in June. The survey predicted an officer shortfall of about 12%, equivalent to 46,000 officers by 2010. But in key note speech, Mr.Larsen said that some of the assumptions made in arriving at this figure may be too optimistic. His estimate was that the shortfall could be as high as 75,000 officers or 20%. This is because of likely continuing problems in recruitment, early retirement of existing officers, general problems of retention and increasing demands for shorter trips. "At the same time world trade will continue to grow. If this is correct, then we could face the real prospect of ships being unable to sail because of shortage of officers," warned Mr.larsen..... "There is no shortage of education and training capacity to meet the shortfall. The problem is one of recruitment and retention and financing the training. Even if we start now, the time taken to train officers will mean it will take some time to bridge the gap," he said. Mr.Larsen called for governments to fund basic education and training for seafarers, but recognised that some countries are reluctant to do so because most of the the trained seafarers then go on to serve with foreign flags.... "Leading managers are experiencing localised shortage of officers rather than a general shortage. I believe the shortage is perceived rather than real," said Mr.Speedie (Conference Chairman Mr.Bob Speedie).... During the ensuing debate, Mr.Speedie commented that it is a legal requirement to have competent seafarers, "but it is up to owners and managers to invest in seafarers to improve quality to a higher level through training and motivation".... In his opening address to the conference, Andrus Maide, director-general of the Estonian Maritime Administration, said that although Estonia is a small country, it is keen to play an active role in improving standards. { Tallinn Report }

Concept Support : This is an Endogenous strengthening approach to upgrade the domestic manpower to operate and monitor the domestic shipping technology. Even small and newly formed nations making an approach in this direction is an example for the necessity and enforcement of the derived concepts. Legally there is a need to have competent manpower, and it is the management decision to design the direction and approach for the training and motivational methodologies. If the management decision is tuned towards a Productivity approach with Socio-Economic goal development as primary for the nation, then the fruits of the domestic manpower tuning will become optimal and beneficial to the national development.

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FINLAND

 FINLAND Support for Economics & Management   Concepts of  DR.VSRS  (SEE CONCEPTS)

LSM (LLOYD'S SHIP MANAGER, UK), ISSN 0265-2455, 
April 2001, Page 33-34. This article appeared in Lloyd's Ship Manager.

After fears that competitiveness of the Finnish merchant fleet will be completely dissipated, the Finnish government has finally agreed to grant subsidies to Finland's fleet of cargoships sailing under the Finnish flag. "The net wage subsidy scheme has now passed through parliament, but we are awaiting acceptance from the European Commission" Per Forsskahl, managing director of Finnish Shipowners' Association (FSA), told LSM... The subsidy paid under the net wage scheme to ship owners for Finnish seafarers sailing on board. It provides tax relief for the shipowners for the wages paid to seafarers. Also, Finnish shipowners have been promised that a tonnage tax scheme will be introduced shortly. At the end of last year, the Finnish government changed the laws in regard to Finnish cargo vessel registered under Finland's parallel register and sailing to foreign ports - this allowed the subsidy to be paid to those ship owners. The long-term uncertainty about future direction of Finnish shipping policy has therefore ended, allowing ship owners to plan operations under more stable conditions.... In practice, this means the cost of seafarers on board Finnish and Aland's cargo vessels will be considerably reduced. The subsidy amounts to 40% of the total cost of each seafarer. If the new tonnage tax legislation comes into force, together with the net wage scheme, this will allow Finnish vessels and those registered in Aland to operate at an acceptable level to meet international competition... The FSA and Aland's Shipowners' Association have made agreements with the Officer's association, which make it possible to employ foreign officers on Finnish vessels. The Finnish Officer's union has made agreement to negotiate with the shipowners employers' organisation on the employment of mixed crews on a case-by-case basis on certain vessels...."It is important to have an agreement with the union about foreign seafarers, otherwise there could be trouble at Finnish ports if the agreement is not in place" said Mr Forsskahl. (Finland, Gaining the upper hand)

Concept Support : The domestic labour force should be employed to man the domestic business. Foreign manpower could be used on case-by-case basis, with proper agreements with the domestic manpower. When the international competition arises, the Government should prepare and pass laws to protect the domestic business against these intangible / universal occurrences. Decisions of the Management as well as the Government should be to provide more weightage to intangible components than the quantitative tangible components.

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FRANCE

 FRANCE   Support for Economics & Management   Concepts of 
 DR.VSRS 
(SEE CONCEPTS)

GULF NEWS (UAE), Business, August 1, 2001 ( Wednesday ),  Page 32

Europe's biggest tyre manufacturer Michelin & CIE SCA yesterday lowered its forecast for profitability this year, amid a US economic slow down, a slumping truck market and high raw material prices.... "There are issues in Brazil and winter tyres aren't selling for them as well as they'd liked, but the vast majority of their problem are due to truck tyres."....The Clermont Ferrand, central France-based company is trying in favour of more expensive tyres, by shifting its product mix in favour of more expensive tyres, but that has failed to offset high raw material prices and slow down in North America. [Paris (Reuters)]

Concept Support : Local infrastructure serving for a foreign market. Improper evaluation of  the Intangible and Tangible aspects of the potential market location, on a long-rage basis.

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GERMANY

GERMANY   Support for Economics & Management   Concepts of  DR.VSRS     (SEE CONCEPTS)

Lloyd's Ship Manager, London, UK. March 2003. Page 30 - 31. "The only way is up for ER Schiffahrt" Report by Tom Todd in the "Interview".

In five years, German company ER Schiffahrt has become the third largest ship owner in the country (Germany), and it has plans to go even higher. "Financing, flexibility and outsourcing in a single package" is that makes German owner ER Schiffahrt tick, according to managing partner Erck Rickmers. He created the company and has seen it grow into one of Germany's most successful ship chartering concerns - all in just five years... ER Schiffahrt was founded and is backed by the powerful capital base of German finance house Nordcapital, which Mr.Rickmers also heads. He has always been quick to point out that the shipping company's close co-operation and affiliation with its parent company has been the link that has made everything work. It has meant strong equity-based ship financing and more investment capital than has been possible with many other firms. Mr.Rickmers says the link has remained strong. "One important factor in our success", he claims "has been dovetailing ER Schiffahrt into Nordcapital Group, which has been active for more than 10 years in ship financing and in the development of shipping concept. Because of Nordcapital, we have a lot of capital power behind us". He also acknowledges, however "it is the people that work for a company who are the key to its success. Our business policy, based on solid growth, makes us an attractive proposition for people who want to make an impact in shipping"... The times are again politically and economically uncertain and prompting caution, and yet ER Schiffahrt has launched another big investment programme... Looking ahead, Mr.Rickmers says : "What will happen in shipping this year will certainly depend to a great extent on political developments in the coming months. Apart from that, however, the structural forces for growth in container shipping remain intact...."... And asked if he expects the firm's next five years to be successful as the last five, he replies simply : "We are working on it".

Concept Support : A private corporate sector has shown land-sliding progress and growth in just 5 years because :

  • The Domestic capital is used with productive leverage towards Domestic investments.
    (An Exogenous synchronisation).

  • The Domestic human potential is attracted and optimised to man the domestic technology.
    (An Endogenous synchronisation).

  • The Management Decision base for the evaluation of the corporate progress and productivity was development and growth.

  • Priority of intangible factors like political and economic uncertainty are well evaluated by the management decision makers with reference to its structural impact on the future business.

SIGMA Individual Corporate growth =  National Socio-Economic Development.

This supports all the in-built Mathematical concepts in my Research Publication in a micro Corporate sector level.

GULF NEWS (UAE), Business,  August 19, 2001 (Sunday),  Page 21.

Four major German investment funds have suspended business with Deutsche Bank after the bank made a massive placement of Deutsche Telekom stock on behalf of  Hutchison Whampoa, a German magazine reported yesterday. In a preview of an article to appear tomorrow, magazine Der Spiege said some Deutsche Bank's clients were unhappy after it sold tens of millions of Telekom shares on behalf of the Hong Kong based Hutchison Whampoa, triggering a sharp fall in Telekom's share prices..... Financial market sources on Friday confirmed to Reuters that Deutsche bank sold 44 million shares in Deutsche Telekom last week on behalf of Hutchison.... Meanwhile, Deutsche Telekom chief Ron Sommer said yesterday he was deeply concerned about the company's recent share slump, calling stock massively undervalued...   "The people have lost half or even   more than half of the capital they invested through the share price has affected me very deeply" he said.  {Frankfurt (Agencies).  D.Telekom shares massively undervalued} 

Concept Support :  Corporate management decisions relating to psycho-socio intensive areas should be thought of and taken cautiously. This is proved algebraically. Also, any massive in and out financial transaction should be evaluated as  a Productivity,  with reference to the Socio-economic goals as a   guideline. Material quantum oriented Productivity evaluation and associated management decisions will be questionable and generate serious criticism.

IBI (International Boat Industry). March 2001. Issue No 306. German Business Report Pages 22,26,29.

A decade ago West Germany stood proud in Europe and consumer confidence rode high. At that time, the federal republic was generally viewed as the veritable powerhouse of Europe, one which could do no wrong. For many Germans those days have gone. Many of the problems in the country today are blamed on the difficulties the German people have had with coming to terms with unification of the form East and West Germanies. The problems stem not just from real-time economics or even political mood, but also from how Germans now perceive themselves and their country. What happened during the 1900s shattered that self-confidence.... Beyond that there was tough budgeting with respect to the single European currency qualification, which in turn now sees the once-mighty Deutsmark replaced by a weak Euro.... What hit German confidence in particular was the knowledge that its national economic strength was unassailable....

BOATING ENVIRONMENT : With the collapse of the Berlin Wall in 1989, Germany's coastline doubled. It now totals around 2,500 km (1,550 miles) when you add up all North Sea and Baltic coasts, the linking kiel Canal and the various islands to the north.... Marina development underway in the region. Of the 4,000 or so births proposed or in development throughout the country , most are on the eastern end of the Baltic coast.... Economic factors aside, Germany has market restrictions including a long-established boat license requirement and the 'green' movement which continues to win boating bans and speed restrictions on many waterways. However, a recent change in legislation has at least boosted the inland charter market, as now licenses are no longer required for inland boating.

INDUSTRY STATISTICS : In all about 8,000 people are employed directly in Germany's marine industry. One is Hamburg-based DBSV (Deutscher Boots - und Schiffsbauer - Verband), which has among its almost 400 member companies most of the German boat builders and equipment manufacturers. The other body is the Cologne-based BWVS (Bundesverband Wassersport-Wirtschaft) which has 1,100 member companies, 400 or so of them 'direct' members. Only about 30-40 marine industry companies are members of both associations. Claus-Ehlert Meyer, head of the DBSV, says things are now markedly better for the German marine industry than three years ago. The regular pole of his members in 2000 registered a significant improvement in confidence, though not in all sectors.... "... As regards coming year most said they were positive and they were investing in their future.".... Ahead of full, official 2000 industry figures, Meyer also confirms boat exports were up, although boosted by five very large superyachts lunched in Germany last year and undoubtedly helped more generally by the weak Euro, to which Deuschmark is now tied and by which it is soon to be replaced. {Old Money New Order}

Concept Support : Unification of two nations of diametrically opposite principle and administrative policies shatters the Social and Economic development methodology and initiative. However the synchronisation of the administrative decisions of the merged government to suit the altered conditions, with Socio-economic development goals as the prime consideration could make a dent in the situation and introduce a development trend. This is both in the utilisation of domestic skills to domestic technological potentials (Endogenous), and domestic investments from domestic resources, through currency strengthening (Exogenous).

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INDIA

INDIA  Support for Economics & management   Concepts of  DR.VSRS    (SEE CONCEPTS)

ECONOMIC MODELS AND THEIR DEVELOPMENT EXPERIENCES
The Indian Journal of Public Administration. Quarterly Journal of the Indian Institute of Public Administration, New Delhi, India.
April to June 2003. Pages 147 to 156.

GROWTH MODELS AND INDIA'S POLICIES
         BY KALA SEETHARAM SRIDHAR,

Assistant Professor, Indian Institute of Management, Lucknow, India  

The Literature on economic growth identifies several theories that describes the phenomenon. Rostow's stages of growth theory describes the transition from under-development to development as a series of stages - the traditional society, pre-conditions for take off into self-sustaining growth, the take-off, drive into maturity and the age of mass consumption-which most countries experience as they grow. There is the assumption in this theory that successful industrialisation in unbalanced in the sense that a single or a limited number has to be a sector.... If we look at India's growth, it is debatable if only one sector is poised to set India for take off...From this view, Rostow's model is not a satisfactory explanation of the changes occurring in India......

  • Another linear stage model that explains growth at an aggregative stage is the Harrod-Domar growth model, which shows that in order to grow, economies must save and invest a certain portion of their GNP. If more they can save and invest, the faster they grow. If we look at the relationship between savings and economic growth in India, we find the paradox of high savings and and low growth despite preferential tax treatment to savings...

  • Structural models (primarily Lewis Model) of growth focus on transfer of labor from agriculture where there is surplus labour, to the modern industrial sector where employment and productivity rise. The best empirical evidence of this structural process described by Lewis may be observed in China... In contrast, eastern Europe and former Soviet Union started reform as urban and overly industrialised.... India is in a similar situation to eastern Europe and former Soviet Union in that it started reform in 1991 as urban and with overbuilt industry, and too little consumer goods... We also have to observe that another assumption of the structural process of growth described by Lewis does not hold good in India. This is the ability with which the modern industrial sector can absorb surplus labour released by the agricultural sector...

  • The international dependence model draws heavily from from the Prebish-Singer thesis that describes the existence of unequal international power imbalances as the cause of under-development in developing countries. Raul Prebisch and Hans Singer blamed trade to be rather an engine of under development for poor countries because they were colonised to become export of primary products whose prices were historically declining... Advocates of this thesis therefore recommended that the solution to problems caused by unequal power relationship is to keep one's economy closed and follow import substitution policies. Consistent with this, and following from its historical experience of colonial rule a model of inward-looking policies-import substitution and export pessimism-is what India adopted until 1991. However, towards the end of 1980s, limitations of closed economies were demonstrated and the advantages of openness, were exemplified by the rapid growth of South-eastern Asian economies. These factors, together with the fiscal crisis with which it was faced in 1991, and the subsequent IMF mandate, changed India to become an economy more open to imports and exports, that exposed the domestic industry to international competition after a long era of protection... This means that if we are open and can integrate with the world economy, we can expect to be fast growing and reach the growth rate of the South-east Asian countries through increase in quantity and quality of labour, capital and technology through trade and investment....

  • The model aptly describes India's growth during 1990s (as well as the earlier populism) is supply-side macro-economics. The central focus of the nonclassical counter-revolution in favour of supply-side macro-economics is that under development results from too much state intervention by overly active Third World governments. This school called for dismantling of statist planning, public ownership and reducing government control over industries, that imply reduction of tax rates... The decade of nineties witnessed a second war (after the civil war) in United states. This in spirit of supply-side macro-economics, is a war of tax incentives among various states in the Unites States to attract investment and employment to their states rather than to lose it to others... In India, a war similar to the United states has occurred in recent years, consistent with the trends in favour of supply-side macro-economics... In the age of globalisation, it is certainly acceptable to expose domestic industry to competition through quality.....

Concept Support :

  1. Rostow's Stages of Growth Theory : It assumes that every nation has an inherent tendency to aim for development and progressively strive towards that goal. But there are no guidelines in this model on the motivational tool for a progress goal development, to lead towards such take-off sages from under-developed to development, and measure the development. Just after independence in 1947, India followed the first Five Year Plan with emphasis on unilateral agricultural development, the Second Year Five Year Plan with unilateral industrialisation etc...with foreign assistance. Uni-directional agriculture and industrialisation without Domestic sources, as well as without equal updates in Domestic Human and Technological infrastructure based on Rostow's theory, does not lead the nation to an improved stage of development. Also the Productivity aspect of development was not taken into account by this model. In the Management decision for development, the influence of intangible factors were never considered. These are the reason for the failure of this model in a nation like India, which has a fairly high level of tangible wealth / intelligentsia as well as intangible social and economic disparities.

  1. Harrod-Domar growth model, which shows that in order to grow, economies must save and invest a certain portion of their GNP. If more they can save and invest, the faster they grow. If we look at the relationship between savings and economic growth in India, we find the paradox of high savings and and low growth despite preferential tax treatment to savings... It is because of the fact that Domestic Investments from Domestic Savings (Exogenous component) is an one-sided guideline, without their proper synchronisation formula among them, and without reference to Domestic Human potential and Technology (Endogenous component) . Government decisions with reference to Socio-Economic Development orientation, practical Productivity measures, as well as the influences of intangible aspects are not a part of this model. These have resulted in a paradoxical situation in India .

  1. Structural models, primarily Lewis Model of growth focus on transfer of labour from agriculture, where there is surplus labour, to the modern industrial sector where employment and productivity are expected to rise. This model considers the possibility of the Endogenous component of Domestic Human potential transfers, without any reference to the appropriate Domestic technology, and the need to synchronise them with Human component. Also assumption on Productivity rise in this model, is quantity oriented and not Socio-Economic development oriented. Hence lob-sided Management decisions based on this model, without due consideration to the influence of intangible components, failed to bring-in the expected development in India, having large resources and qualified/skilled surplus labour.

  1. The International dependence model draws heavily from from the Prebish-Singer thesis that describes the existence of unequal international power imbalances as the cause of under-development in developing countries. Closure to developed international power and their market, truncates the development of a nation, by not taking advantage of their Research and Development know-how, as well as the production possibility of their needs at competitive domestic costs, prevailing due to lower level of development. Hence, it is always wise to take advantage of international power and assistance to start with, and progressively increase Domestic Investments from Domestic savings (Exogenous component). Also simultaneous development of Domestic Human potential to suit the Domestic Technology (latest Endogenous component from the international power moderated to suit local needs), are not part of the Prebish-Singer model. International influence is an intangible component, and it should be utilised with proper precautions, with an eye on the measurement of the Productivity of the nation, with reference to Socio-Economic development units. The effect is that all the nationalised sectors as well as those in the exclusive control of the government in India are progressively offered to private parties, including competitive bidders from international locations.

  1. The central focus of the nonclassical counter-revolution in favour of Supply-side Macro-economics is that under development results from too much state intervention by overly active Third World governments. Reducing government controls and taxes are incentives for investment. But those who invest not necessarily follow the guidelines of Exogenous rule of progressive Domestic Investment from Domestic savings, and Endogenous rule of progressive Domestic Technology with Domestic Human potential, and their synchronisation. Also these should be backed with Socio-Economic development oriented Productivity approaches and Management Decision should be oriented with due consideration for the intangible aspects. Unless all these complex components are taken care, there cannot be any improvement in the national Socio-Economic development. This is what is happening to India, even after 56 years of Independence.

The Algebraic model on redefined productivity / Socio-Economic development oriented Management Decision guidelines, together with theGeometric model for Socio-Economic development acceleration by DR.VSRS, are comprehensive models, taking care of all the required components needed for the nations to progress in development as well as to sustain their development status on a continuing basis.

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The Indian Journal of Public Administration. Quarterly Journal of the Indian Institute of Public Administration, New Delhi, India. October to December 2002. Pages 582 to 589

On going Global transformations need guidance, to avoid very negative looming consequences and realise very positive potentials... It is recognised that there is more to living standards than is typically captured in GDP accounting. Improvement in education or health are not just means to an end of increased output... Equity, security and healthy are not just means, to an end of increased welfare... Over 300 BC Kautilya in his famous treatise Arthasastra, discussing about good ruler king observed that - "in the happiness of his subjects lies his happiness, in their welfare his welfare, whatever pleases himself he shall not consider as good, but whatever pleases his subjects he shall consider as good". In contrast to this the recent Human Development Report 2002, observes that there is no single answer to a question of what is good governance, however, what makes institutions and rulers more effective, including transparency, participation, responsiveness, accountability and the rule of law may be regarded as element of good governance... World bank has identified the following characteristics of good governance as : political accountability; availability of freedom; law abiding citizens and people in power; bureaucratic accountability; transparency; availability of information; effectiveness; efficiency; and cooperation between government and society... Just as Thomas Moore, long back found difficulty in defining good and ultimately said that "good is good".... Earlier there was a common wisdom that there was a trade-off between rapid growth and democratic governance... Now it has been realised that instead of contradictions both reinforce each other and are complementary... Whatever be the outlook towards government one feature that runs commonly through all of them is high level of dissatisfaction among the people which is the direct outcome of poor governance... Governance must Ensure Promotion of ... propensities for rapid learning ; and improvisation and crisis decision-making... The present policy system is - "Pressure Dominated Multi Media Populist Democracy", instead of "Quality Democracy"... In a nutshell for good governance local elements by way of local participation, local representation, local authority, local accountability, efficiency and productivity are all basic requirements... By staying closer to people, a decentralised system may have superior information channels that permit more efficient resource allocation decisions... The importance of income differentials between households and regions is a second criteria...Per capita income is a third dimension.. Governance should be founded on the consent of the people and really democratic... This requires workable rules for decision making...

Good Governance : Populist Democracy to Quality Democracy By : R.S.Tiwari

Concept Support : The article clearly converges the concept of good governance, towards the need for a Broad based Management Decision methodology and Synchronisation of Resources.

  1. There is more to living standards than is typically captured in GDP accounting, indicates the necessity for a different approach to Productivity... The importance of income differentials between households and regions is a second criteria...Per capita income is a third dimension..

  • This is achieved by the re-definition of Productivity evaluation with reference to the Output Socio-Economic Development goals as primary and quantity output as secondary, as derived in my new concept.

  1. Kautilya's famous treatise Arthasastra, discussing about the good ruler (king) leads towards the need for Socio-Economic Development orientation of any ruler (or the government administrator) to build a closer link with the public.

  • This is achieved by the evaluation of Output and Input Management Decisions with reference to the Socio-Economic Development goals, in my new concept.

  1. The Human Development Report 2002 and the World bank standards for good governance sharpen the Management behavior and decision methodology at a public level towards a broad-based self and public justice approach... superior information channels that permit more efficient resource allocation decisions...

  • This justice occurs by the simultaneous synchronisation of Domestic Manpower with Domestic Technology and Domestic savings with domestic Investments, and contemporised expansion of their dimensions, in my new concept.

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IIPA NEWS LETTER. Indian Institute of Public Administration, New Delhi 110002. India. November 2002. Proceeding of the Annual General Body Meeting. Pages 1 to 3.

The forty-eighth General Body Meeting of IIPA members was held on October 25, in IIPA auditorium at New Delhi.... Discussing the progress in the previous century which witnessed giant strides in knowledge and material well-being, Shri Shekhawat mentioned that although the previous century has brought in automobiles, aircrafts, information technology and put man on the moon, yet the "giant leap for the mankind" has not added to the desired level of human happiness. Shri Shekhawat observed that the twentieth century also gave us atom bomb and the knowledge and means of mass self-destruction but at the same time mankind lives in fear of its own technology. He remarked that technological development in last century has given us a world where not only ideas and innovations, finance and commodities, but even poverty, greed and terror have become globalised..... Shri Shekhawat observed that although the world has virtually shrunk to a global village, yet psychological barriers to building brotherhood remain due to misunderstanding and hatred.... According to Shri Chavan, globalisation demands a new approach to governance where the administration is nimble and agile and quickly adjusts to and anticipates global developments. He stated that repeated crisis in developing countries have the global flows of finance can destabilise the economies of the developing countries unless policy-makers have a proper monitoring system to anticipate problems in time and are able to respond quickly to emerging pressure. shri Chavan observed that though policy and administration must be open to global influences, the primary responsibility of national governments is towards its own citizens, especially the poor and the under-privileged who often do not gain adequately from markets and emerging world order. He felt that the provision of basic needs, removal of poverty illiteracy and improvements in the living standards of the poor must remain our primary concern till fulfillment of basic needs is assured for even the poorest.

Concept Support : In the universe of Development Economics, Social development is represented by Endogenous circle linking Domestic technology with Domestic human potential (Technical Infrastructure) and Economic development is represented by Exogenous circle linking Domestic investment with Domestic saving potential (Entrepreneurial background). In the previous century, Technology representing material growth, has taken precedence over the Human development representing peace, brotherhood and human happiness, due to the concepts of globalisation and keeping pace with the world. The gainers in this approach are the developed world and the losers are the third world nations. The 2 components of the Endogenous circle should be balanced at every point of time. The mankind lives in fear of its own technology, because of the non utilisation of my redefined productivity concept that development should be measured with reference to the Socio-Economic development goal as a prime unit, than the quantum unit, generally used. If this redefined measure is used, the basic needs will gain priority over the materials of self-destruction.

Management decision should take the bottom-line intangible components namely the psychological, social, international and universal occurrences as a prime factor, in addition to the techno-commercial components. This will induct the decision makers in the private as well as in the government level to respond quickly to emerging pressures on the way to the goals leading towards Socio-economic development.

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THE  JOURNAL OF THE INDIAN INSTITUTE OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION, New Delhi, India. April - June 2002, Page 150 (Conclusion).

First State Finance Commission of Himachal Pradesh - Its Role, Relevance and Recommendations relating to Panchayati raj Institutions. By : Prof. Shiv Raj Singh, Chairman, Department of Public Administration, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla. India. and L.N.Sharma, Lecturer in Political science, Government College, Sarkaghat, Himachal Pradesh. India.

Recommendation of the first ever SFC (State Finance Commission) are quiet objective, important and relevant to improve the financial position of the PRIs (Panchyat Raj Institutions) in the state. But these institutions cannot emerge as financially viable entities until they generate their own resources, for which all the necessary powers at all levels must be given to these institutions without any further delay.... The objective of strengthening the democratic process at the grass-roots level can be achieved only if the local bodies become economically self-reliant.

Concept Support : This recommendation directly supports the concept that the Exogenous circle linking the Domestic resources (savings) should support the (Investment) Capital needs, even at a village Panjayat Raj level. This is mandatory for strengthening the democratic process at the grass-roots level. But the recommendation of the State Finance Commission could be realised in practice, only if the Endogenous circle linking the Domestic manpower with Domestic technology is also equally strengthened. The improved income by a broad-based employment of the domestic manpower alone can improve the "own resources" in the form of Domestic savings.

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THE  JOURNAL OF THE INDIAN OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION, New Delhi, India. April - June 2002, Page 183 (Summary in the beginning). Some aspects of disaster mitigation and management in India.
By : Dr.Biswaroop Das, Centre for Social studies, South Gujerat University Campus, Surat. India.

Disaster management is emerging as a subject for study for administrators, planners and policy makers.This article outlines the approaches to manage and mitigating disaster. The author lays emphasis on critical and scientific analysis of disaster related data for making preparedness and response plans. There is enough to learn from the experience of some recent disasters to streamline the rescue and relief operations..... Environmentalists believe that developmental activities induce most of the nature's imbalances which are manifested in the form of natural calamities and disasters from time to time. We may choose to ignore the word of caution while planning the developmental activities, but the planners will be better advised to brace up for the resultant disasters and hazards...

Concept Support : The Management Decision Model emphasises that the Universal (Nature's imbalances), International and Local occurrences are influential and most important feed-back guideline factors for Socio-Economic Development oriented Management Decisions. In a macro level national planning, this is an imperative necessity for the developmental activities, leading to move towards positive Socio-Economic Development.

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THE HINDU, MAGAZINE, FOCUS. Thiruvananthapuram, India. November 4, 2001 (Sunday) Page 4.

No one could have anticipated the miracle for which C.Subramaniam (CS) has laid not only the foundation but also the road map for self-sufficiency in food in the country. On the floor of the Parliament he said, "Therefore if this house and the country want that we should reach self-sufficiency, as far as I am concerned, as far as this Government is concerned, I want to give this pledge that we shall do everything possible to become self-sufficient and to see that we get rid of our dependence on imported food grains as early as possible". The pledge was fulfilled when the country between 1976 and 1980 imported no grains despite a severe draught of 1979 that resulted in decreased production by 22 million tonnes over the previous year.... C.Subramaniam thus set out two major objectives of the agricultural policy for achieving self-sufficiency in food grains. These were (i) introduce science and technology in agriculture, and (ii) establish a pricing policy to motivate farmers for enhancing production..... Having decided to introduce new technology, there were several decisions to be taken - (i) to gain confidence that the technology would be successful in wheat growing regimes, (ii) if it was indeed successful then to spread to a large area as soon as possible to do away with the PL-480 supplies. In a meeting of scientists M.S.Swaminathan, then Head of the Botany Division, IARI, suggested organisation of 1000 demonstration plots of two hectare each in farmer's fields. On the question of failure demonstrations, CS promised to compensate farmers if they lost. Thus began the ambitious programme of producing 25 million tons of wheat, unparalleled in the history of agriculture anywhere in the world... This led to improvement in agricultural production in many developing countries. Dr.Borlaugh received the Nobel Pize for his contribution for peace through agriculture production that popularly came to be known as "Green Revolution".... A reply during the debate in Rajya sabah summed up this conviction, He said "There is a proverb in Tamil and I am sure my honourable friend (Referring to C.N.Annadurai, then Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu) will bear me out. It is to the effect that we wait for all the waves to subside before we enter the ocean for the purpose of taking a bath, then we will never be able to enter the ocean at all. We have to brave the waters and enter the ocean." {Architect of the Green Revolution. By Suresh Krishna. The writer is a Former Director, Indian Agricultural Research institute, New Delhi}

Concept Support : This is a practical Result-oriented support to establish the fact that approaching the Productivity in any sector, with reference to the Socio-Economic goals (like self-sufficiency), as primary, than the quantum aspects (like more output for input), alone can revolutionise the development requirements of any nation. Domestic technology, derived from modern developments / modified to suit domestic environments, is a pre-requisite. Management Decisions in an aggregate government level should be prepared to forge forward without time-loss, as well as planned incentives to motivate the domestic social development contributory participants are mandatory (intangibles are more important than tangibles).

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THE HINDU, Thiruvananthapuram, India. November 03, 2001, Saturday.
Page 10.

REMOVING STRUCTURAL HURDLES should necessarily precede the changes planned for India's economy to move into the second stage of reforms. Not- withstanding the amendments already made to economic legislation, much more remains to be done. Reforming many of the existing laws - those that took effect to support state led economic growth - will call for changes that go beyond ere legislative purposes. They would have to encompass the range of issues involved, and take proper not of the linkages between law and economic activity. Simply put, the magnitude of changes required touch upon the basic factors of production, land, labour, capital and organisation. Sweeping reforms such as these will necessarily have to be approached in a measured manner, and should secure the advantage of as broad a consensus as possible.. While a decade of economic reforms saw a plethora of groups making recommendations on changes required in several sectors of the economy, the progress card does not show much satisfaction. Attempts to change the more sensitive laws have either been deferred or have found themselves held up in procedures. An oft-cited hurdle to attract more foreign direct investment has been the legal structure and changing this is bound to more difficult within a democratic framework. Nonetheless, the changes required will have to be made taking into account the sensitivities involved.... While thinking behind amending the Indian laws relating to economic activity is to bring them on par with international laws, it is also important that domestic issues are not forgotten. With the country moving to a situation where efficiency will decide economic survival, social issues cannot be ignored. The difficult balance between facilitating efficiency and protecting social concerns will have to be struck. If a broad reason is to be identified for the slow progress, in changing economic laws, it is the inability to strike this ideal balance. The argument for changes in land laws to bring in more efficient farm practices is a pointer to the difficulties that would have to be encountered and the social changes that could result from such changes. {Economic Reforms and the Law, Editorial}

Concept Support : This a direct analysis of the hurdles in accelerating the Socio-Economic development of a nation, with conflicting legal and social implications. The solution is offered by the concept, that Productivity of a nation should be shifted drastically from the current quantum aspect to a Socio-Economic reference dimension. This will integrate the conflicts between the laws and the social aspects. Accordingly the Management decisions of the Government infrastructure should concentrate on the synchronisation of the Exogenous Circle (Domestic investment upgradation for domestic investments) with the Endogenous circle (Local manpower support for moderated latest technologies and methodologies), and optimising their development diameters. Attempts to upgrade Endogenous aspects, without an equal attempt to upgrade the Exogenous dimension as well as the old Productivity assumptions are the direct result of the current situation.          

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GULF NEWS (UAE), Opinion,  August 11, 2001 (Saturday),  Page 6.

Agriculturally we have done better because of the hard working farmers.  But see the Government's achievements : It has not been able to provide even drinking water to most people. Poverty and squalor continue to hound the nation as disparities grow among people and the states.  And, as for  education this year also the allocation was only 6 percent of the budget.... There is a sense of frustration and depression in the country.  The old  buoyancy of spirit is not to be found when enthusiasm and hard work are most needed.   And in our efforts to ensure material prosperity, we have not paid any attention to the spiritual element in human nature.... We talk of welfare state and of democracy and socialism. They are good concepts, but they hardly convey any clear and unambiguous meaning.  They are means to an end, and not the end itself.  The touch stone should be how far any political or social system enables the individual to rise above his petty self and think in terms of the good for all (By Kuldip Nayar for Gulf News, New Delhi.  The comment is by Kuldip Nayar, a former Indian High Commissioner to UK and a Rajya Sabha MP)

Concept Support :  Non-cautious management decisions on Psycho-Socio intensive issues, and its post implications. Social Rate of Return NOT considered over the Quantum and Financial Rate of return (or Material Rate of Return). Hence the problem. Socio-Psycho intensive and those related to the basic needs should be considered with  balance, and proper decisions should be made to accelerate the Socio-Economic Development.  The productivity of any country should be measures with reference to The Socio-Economic Development goal achievements than Quantum output achievements.    

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THE GULF TODAY (UAE), Business, August 2, 2001 (Thursday), Page 21

Technology research firm Gartner has projected the number of regular Internet users in India to raise 32 percent to 7.9 million by end-2001. from six million currently, and to 40 million by end-2005, a statement from the firm said on Wednesday...Gartner said Cyber Kiosks were most popular means of accessing the Internet in India, thanks to their affordability and availability. "The cost of other Internet access devices such as PC (personal computer) or mobile phones will remain prohibitive for most of the population in India" the statement said.
(MUMBAI, Reuters).

Concept Support : Imported Hi-tech utility. Non-cost conscious local infrastructure. Potential advantage and profitability for the foreign services at the local cost and population. Social Rate of return is not evaluated.

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THE GULF TODAY (UAE), Business, August 2, 2001 (Thursday), Page 21

Thousands of investors flocked to the office of the Unit Trust of India
(UTI) all over the country, on Wednesday, desperate to sell off units of a popular scheme that has crashed. The 20 million investors in the US-64 plan frozen for six months from July 2 are being allowed to redeem 3,000 units each at a face value of Rs 10 per unit, a 40 percent discount to the price UTI paid in May.... Some unit holders were angry with UTI for "carelessly handling public money" and "taking small investors for a ride"
. (New Delhi, Indo-Asian News Service)

Concept Support Non-cautious management decisions on Psycho-Socio intensive issues, and its post implications. Social Rate of Return NOT considered over the Quantum and Financial Rate of return. Hence the problem.

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GULF NEWS (UAE), India,  August 1, 2001 (Wednesday ), Page 24.

It needed wide spread  protests across the city for the Maharashtra Government to realise that it had taken an unwise and discriminatory decision to cut aid to English medium schools and then ask them to raise the fees....The government felt that the children going to English-medium schools were from economically better-off families as compared to Marathi schools. Schools were told to collect the short fall by collecting higher fees from August 1. from all students, except from holders of yellow ration card, who are below poverty line.....  The Forum of Aided English Medium Schools said that the decision was wrong as a majority of the children in these schools were poor and there would be massive schools drop-outs. (From Pamela Raghunath - Our Mumbai Correspondent. "Decision follows widespread protests across Mumbai")

Concept Support : Psycho-socio implied decision should be made cautiously and after a pre-evaluation.  Local population should be well trained to meet the needs of international developments,  so that the pace of Socio-economic development could be accelerated. Social Rate of Return is NOT considered superior to Financial Rate of Return. Neglecting   these guidelines will only lead the country towards more backwardness.

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IIPA NEWS LETTER (INDIA) Indian Institute of Public Administration,  
June 2001, Page 1.

Course on Community Based Disaster Management - IIPA's National Centre for Disaster Management - jointly with Disaster Mitigation Institute, Asian Disaster Preparedness Centre, Duryog Nivaran, ITDG, South Asia - organised the programme from May 7-12. Besides introducing various preparatory tools in community based risk assessment, the course was designed for the participants to : identify various risk reduction measures that can be undertaken by the community and translate these measures into community level action plan; and learn lessons by providing opportunity for sharing local and valuable experiences. (Institute News)

Concept SupportIntangible components like Universal effects through disaster, is a vital and priority aspect  of modern management decision process. Their priority is more than the value attached to quantum tangible aspects.

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IIPA NEWS LETTER (INDIA) Indian Institute of Public Administration,  
June 2001, Page 4.

Plan to Check Slowdown in EconomyThe Union Government is proposed to set up public investment, especially in power sector, and also by working out sector specific strategies for reviewing the old economy. The government has decided to monitor developments in key sectors on a weekly basis and to hold separate discussions with industry groups such as cement, automobiles, housing and the electrical industry to start with. Besides this, the government is working  out plans to set up public spending in crucial sectors like power.  The plan revolves around augmenting the financial resources of state utilities such as National Thermal Power Corporation and National Hydro Electric Power Corporation for completing on-going projects and and also for taking up new projects. (News from Centre)

Concept SupportIndigenous technology should be executed by domestic skills and domestic investments should be pooled from domestic saving resources. If these two Endogenous and Exogenous aspects are synchronised on an on-going process, the direction of the Socio-economic development will start assuming an accelerated pace. However the results of these Productivity attempts should be measured through the redefined Socio-economic goal units, than through  simple quantum units.

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IIPA NEWS LETTER (INDIA) Indian Institute of Public Administration,  
June 2001, Page 5.

In attempt to attract foreign investment the Union Government has thrown open the gates to foreign direct investment (FDI) by hiking the limits in telecom, banks, drugs and pharmaceuticals, airports, development of townships, hotels and tourism, courier services, mass rapid transport system and defence.  While the government has decided to allow the Indian private sector to invest 100 per cent in the defence industry, FDI would be restricted to the extent of 26 per cent.  In case of Internet service providers with gateways, radio paging and end-to-end band width, FDI has been increased from 49 to 74   per cent. The proposal would need approval by the Foreign Investment Promotion Board (FIPB), and are subject to licensing and security requirements (News from the Centre)

Concept Support :  Acceleration of Socio-economic development warrants  Domestic investments from Domestic savings (Individual, Corporate, Government sources). This is the Exogenous circular process to strengthen the dependence on foreign sources and control the foreign liabilities. Contrary to this   guideline, the the Foreign Direct Investment channel is opened and expanded. The foreign investment sources will operate only on a good rate of return to repatriate the earnings to foreign locations. This is against the guidelines for accelerating the Socio-economic development.

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TECHNORAMA, A supplement to the Journal of the Institution of Engineers (India),  Kolkata 700020,  India Monthly, Summer 2001 (April 2001), Page 3.

Reducing unemployment of university graduates depends on two factors in particular (among several others) : a) the general economic growth and the consequent creation of new employment opportunities : and b) the relevance of the skill profiles of the graduates to the requirement of the emerging occupations.... The economic growth of advanced industrialised societies can be attributed largely to their capability to generate technologies and apply them to industrial production. Enhancing the technological capability is crucial to development. The technological capability of a country in choosing, acquiring, generating and applying technologies, which contribute to meeting its development objectives, resides first of all in human skills - in individuals with requisite inclination, training and experience. The second component of technological capability is the institutions which bring together skills and know-how that individual possess and permits its application.  The third component is a common purpose without which individual and organisations would not serve the purpose of development. ("Human Capital Development in Engineering for Global Competitiveness : Changing Occupation and Skill patterns" By Prof. Ashoka Chandra, Special Secretary, Ministry of Human Resources Development, Government of India. From the Text of the 12th Dr.A.N.Khosla Memorial Lecture, delivered on Fourteenth Engineering Congress, New Delhi, January 29-31, 2001)

Concept Support : Updating the technology to suit the local environments and training domestic individuals to meet the need is one aspect of the Socio-economic development process. Also the globalisation has expanded the   techno-investment dimension of the technology. Because of these, the Productivity of any sector should be evaluated with reference to the Socio-economic development objectives, rather than a Quantum aspect. 

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TECHNORAMA, A supplement to the Journal of the Institution of Engineers (India),  Kolkata 700020,  India Monthly, Summer 2001 (April 2001), Page 8.

Managing the Indian industry in the present millennium will, therefore, require 'capabilities' and 'capacities' appropriate for handling unfolding 'challenges' and 'opportunities'.  The nature of these 'capabilities' and 'capacities' will depend on the nature of current and future changes... Two world-wide changes are happening. One is the change and philosophy and approach towards governance from 'socialist pattern' to 'market driven' and the other is globalisation of economy.  Progressively every country is coming out of licence and permit regime.  Role of Governments is changing from that of 'controller' to 'regulator'. Thus, the direct role of Government in business is coming to an end.... The Government has not only to facilitate competition, it has also to play a positive role in making industry globally competitive... The globalization of economy has brought global integration of 'resources' and 'markets'. The barriers are coming down in terms of accessibility to physical resources, financial capital, technology and human resources. Similarly market base is not only unrestricted but also unlimited. A country's boundary no longer dictates the size of the market.... Capital is shifting away from the industries and from countries that do not have adequately responsive strategies. Capital will flow to only destinations of maximum return. Many a dogma like national industries versus multinational industries, and small scale versus large industries, will submerge in the sea of competition... Only those economic thought process and strategies would ultimately survive that help in managing and winning competition...Two peculiar paradoxical situations are emerging in the business environment. One is that of the process of globalization is co-existing with formation of regional economic creations like ASEAN, NAFTA, and SAFTA. And the other is that while globalization is encouraging competition, acquisition and merger of major companies are reducing the number of industry-specific key players. In past these contradictions were neither possible to conceive nor manage.  ("Managing Indian Industries in the New Millennium" By Shri V.K.Agarwal, Former Chairman, Railway Board and Ex-Officio Principal Secretary to Government of India. From the text of the 42nd Sir Mokshaguundam Visvesvaraya Memorial Lecture delivered on Fourteenth Engineering Congress, New Delhi, January 29-32, 2001)    

Concept Support : In the new Millennium, Globalisation  has strengthened  the effects of "Cost Consciousness", the grass-root for  competitive inputs, and "Quality orientation", the foundation for Techno-labour output management. Unless these two aspects are taken care with utmost priority and sincerity, the business/industry cannot continue to survive and the Socio-economic development, which is depended on this, cannot progress. This is a direct inference of the model by needing the optimum integration of the Exogenous (Domestic capital from domestic sources for cost optimisation), and Endogenous (Domestic labour to man domestic technology) circles in a nation, irrespective of the bracket of the development status. 

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GULF NEWS (UAE), Business, July 21, 2000 ( Friday )

The Indian Rupee ended at a new closing low of 44.89/90 yesterday, after the dollar supplies pulled the unit back from its intra-day low of 44.925, dealers said. The Rupee is close to its all time low of 44.95 per dollar recorded on June 9..." One state run bank came with dollar supplies just before close and quoted lower " said a dealer in European Bank ( MUMBAI ).

Concept Support : Improper management of local - foreign trade leverages. Implications affect high payments for imports, and less returns for exports. Improper concept of  Productivity principles. Since other foreign currencies (except those few countries poorer than India) provide a multiplied amount when remitted from abroad, this will motivate the emigration of large number of people from India. In India what you cannot save in a life span of 50 years, one can remit in a few months, even accepting jobs of 1/10 of the payment of what they deserve and eligible, in a foreign and alien location of the world,  simply because of the foreign exchange leverage. Since the Productivity is not integrated with Social development, and viewed in a material quantum fashion, this situation continues to grow. 

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INDONESIA

  INDONESIA  Support for Economics & Management  Concepts of 
 DR.VSRS    
(SEE CONCEPTS)

THE JOURNAL OF THE INDIAN INSTITUTE OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION. New Delhi, India. April - June 2002,
Page 151 (Summary in the beginning).

Bureaucratic support factors in a decentralised Agricultural extension in Indonesia : An initial assessment. By : Dr.Wardin, Ministry of National education, Faculty of Economics, Diponegoro University, Indonesia.

Decentralisation policy in agricultural extension was not effectively implemented in Indonesia at the local level. Effectiveness in programme planning, decision making, resources utilisation and provision of benefits were not executed as expected by the policy objectives. As beneficiaries of the services, farmers received little from the extension services. There was a tendency that lower level officers have lower understanding and knowledge pertaining to the current implementation policy. Effectiveness of policy implementation was positively and significantly correlated to the bureaucratic support from district government bureaucracy, supervision as well as guidance from higher level agricultural agencies

Concept Support : This case in Indonesia is a development of a higher level of agricultural extension policy (Techno-commercial system), without a synchronised development of domestic manpower infrastructure to effectively implement the same. This has resulted in the objective of the extension plan not reaching the beneficiaries, the farmers. This clearly indicates the concept that the any imbalance in the two wings Endogenous circle, namely the Domestic Manpower and the Domestic Technology should be balanced well. Otherwise it will be injurious to Socio-Economic development.

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IRAQ

 IRAQ  Support for Economics & Management  Concepts of 
 DR.VSRS   (SEE CONCEPTS)

Oil Review, Middle East Issue, Issue Five 2002. Pages 16 -18.
"Under Utilised Potential".

Since September 11th, 2002, the ongoing threats of terrorism, and unstable geopolitical conditions in the Middle East, coupled with US's campaign against Saddam Hussain's regime have shifted the focus from the significant economic benefits of developing Iraq's hydrocarbons riches. Iraq, a founding member of the Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), is permitted to export 2.2m barrels per day (bpd) under the United Nation's "Oil for the Food" scheme..... Crude oil was first discovered in northern Iraq during 1927, well before Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and Abu Dhabi.... The full potential of Iraq's hydrocarbons remains under-explored because the vast western desert region may contain sizeable new oil/gas reserves.... The country's proven reserves are almost four times those of the US (the world's biggest oil-user)..... The extraction costs in Iraq are among the world's lowest, estimated at below US$ 1 per barrel, because the bulk of oil reserves are close to the surface..... Oil constitutes the bedrock of sanction-bound economy, representing over two-thirds of gross domestic product and 95 per cent of total exports. The petroleum industry remains in dire shape, reflecting gross "under-investments" over the past 22 years at least.... Mr.Kolfi Annan, the UN Secretary-General warned a "major breakdown" in the oil sector if vital spare parts and equipment were not forthcoming. During the past 3 years Baghdad has spent just US$ 1,200 mn on foreign spare parts. In essence only Russian technologies have sustained the industry and therefore prevented Iraqi oil production and processing facilities from deteriorating beyond repair.... A report by Saybolt international, an oil consultancy said that Iraq's use of short-term production techniques were generally unconventional within the global oil industry. According to British Foreign Office, damage to Iraq's energy infrastructure (oilfields, pipelines, refineries, and export terminals) has contributed to US$ 100 billion in economic losses over two decades....For political/diplomatic reasons, the Iraqi government is more inclined to offer energy sector (and related) contracts to companies from Russia, France and China (the permanent members of the UN Security council). These countries have vested economic interests in Iraq (which Baghdad has been exploiting in order to counteract possible US Military strikes).... The industry's revival depends on massive foreign investment and new technology of oil majors, as well as a stable political environment this decade... Moreover, if future Iraqi output is compatible with its actual capacity and reserves, as well as socio-economic development requirements, it may undermine Saudi Arabia's status as the globe's top producer.... But it would take at least a decade to build a world-class petroleum industry in Iraq.

Concept Support : A country with abundant and un-explored wealth, capable of becoming a World Leader in Oil Production and Supply, with a vast potential for Socio-Economic Development, is in a down-trodden stage and the people suffer. The reasons are logically and practically explained by the new mathematically derived concepts.

  1. Politico-Management decision to give priority to all other  aspects, than Socio-Economic Development.

  2. Measuring internal oil sector Productivity with reference to the    support gaining against a potential external attack, rather than the internal Socio-Economic Development.

  3. Endogenous component matching of Domestic Manpower with    Domestic Technology is completely absent. Solely depended on out-dated foreign techno-commercial support.

  4. Exogenous synchronisation of Domestic Savings with Domestic investment is absolutely absent.

  5. All other nations have vested interest. Hence, Domestic dependence on both Exogenous and Endogeous aspects should be aimed at, eventhough it is necessary to depend upon foreign assistance to start with. It was totally absent.As a result, the nation instead of accelerating its Socio-Economic development, deteriorated  towards an irreparable disaster, which will take many decades to recover.

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ISREAL

 ISRAEL  Support for Economics & Management  Concepts of 
 DR.VSRS   
(SEE CONCEPTS)

THE GULF TODAY, Daily News Paper, UAE. Monday, April 8, 2002. Home.   Page - 1.

Israel affirmed on Sunday that its military offensive in the West Bank would continue for up to three weeks as its military pounded the West Bank cities of Nablus and Jenin and battled with Palestinians in alleyways.... Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon said the assault on the Palestinians was at "point of no return" a day after US President George W.Bush called on Sharon to pull back his troops "without delay". Sharon referred to "disagreements among friends" with Washington over the issue. The UN agency dealing with Palestinian refugees the Israeli occupation forces have "made a hellish battle ground among the civilians in Balata and Jenin refugee camps". { Israeli offensive to last for weeks From Occupied Jerusalem }

PANORAMA, Friday Weekly Magazine of the Gulf Today, UAE.
April 5-11, 2002. Page 26 - 27.

However, there are major differences between the political situation today and that of 1982. In 1993 Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organisation signed an agreement involving Israel's withdrawal from the occupied Palestine territories and the emergence of a Palestinian entity.... Furthermore, a majority of Israelis is prepared to accept the establishment of a Palestinian states beside Israel. The international community, including the US has approved this plan, most recently in UN Security Council resolution. Thus, it is too late for Sharon to turn back the clock on the peace process launched by Us-convened Madrid Conference of 1991. The germ of Palestinian independence has been sworn, the plant has taken the root, the Palestinian state will come forth in spite of Sharon. Perhaps even because of Sharon. He could pay a high political price for his brutal and bloody attempt to defeat political realities with military excesses.
{ Sharon's losing battle By Michael Jansen - Cover Story }

Concept support : The Productivity of any activity should be evaluated with reference to the Socio-Economic Development (SED) Units. The primary aspiration of any Israeli in-house, is continued self-sufficiency in the bare minimum primary requirements such as food, clothing, shelter and peaceful living. The war and revolution may be highly productive in terms of the numbers killed per attempt, or the quantum use of ammunition per square feet of territorial capture. But with reference to the SED units, the entire war and the associated attempts for the past many decades, are highly unproductive. At least at the wake this millennium it should be realised and direction of thoughts should be diverted towards the in-house development of Israel. Investment support from internal and external sources (Exogenous element) should not any more be used for ammunition / war-attempts, but directed for economic construction and rehabilitation. The moral, mental and physical energy of the domestic manpower (Endogenous element) should not any more be used for peripheral territorial safe-guard, but for domestic techno-commercial development. These thoughts in line with the Concepts will open the channel for a non-violent approach, peaceful solution and ultimate gain for the Israel and the Israelis towards the expected end-result of all the decades of spent efforts. The developed mediating nation - US - should bring in these thoughts in line with the Mathematically proven concepts.

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ITALY

ITALY  Support for Economics & Management  Concepts of  DR.VSRS (SEE CONCEPTS)

IBI (International Boat Industry), UK. June/July 2002. Page 9.

The lack of marinas in southern Italy is stunning the growth of the country's boat market, says Italian marine trade federation UCINA president Paolo Vitelli. He told journalists at the SATEC Convention in Santa Margherita Ligure (May 17-20) that the paucity of berths in Southern Italy is a major concern for UNICA, and he renewed calls for government help to push through reforms to enable marina development in south of the country. According to Vitelli, Italy has 48,000 berths about a fifth of the number of marinas in France, and the country needs an extra 100,000 berths. Vitelli told IBI that he believed 20-25,000 of these berths could be put on private land on Italy's Adriatic coast, which lends itself to marina development, unlike rockier Mediterranean coast line.... "We must create a state infrastructure," Vitelli told IBI "a strategy that sees the creation of good quality marinas of the right size where they are needed. It is a delicate situation where we have to convince the governments, who often want the biggest marina possible, that is better for all concerned if they get a better quality smaller marina". According to UCINA Italy is exporting 80 per cent of all the boat it produces. "In many ways having strong exports is a good thing" commented Vitelli. "However 80 per cent is too much. We need to have the infrastructure to keep some of those boats in this country , just like that created in Palma" {UCINA renews calls for marina strategy}.

Concept Support : 80% export of the total production is a good thing and indicates a good productivity in the boat industry. However the productive contribution should not be evaluated with reference to the quantum aspect alone. When Productivity is seen with reference to the Socio-Economic Development units, 80% export is too much. A sizeable quantum of the boats should be utilised within the marina trade, which could accelerate a more meaningful Socio-Economic Development cycle, through improvement in the utilisation of domestic technology with domestic skills (Endogenous Circle).    

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GULF NEWS (UAE), Europe, July 30, 2001 ( Monday ) ,   Page 9

People living on the slopes of Mount Etna sought solace in their faith yesterday and asked for divine protection from the volcano's fury.  In Nicolosi, the only town near the molten rivers of lava, worshippers crowded the church of Santa maria della Grazia for Mass and laid flowers at the shrine of the St. Antony's their patron saint. "Local people still believe in miracles" said teacher Gianbattista Martinazoli said as he left the mass.  "If human technology can't keep the lava back, the Eternal father is our only salvation". Nicolosi's priest the Rev. Bartolomeo Ruggieri, said the danger of living   on the slopes of a live volcano, Europe's largest, makes his parishioners strong.  "Being in danger's path makes them wiser"  he said. "It makes them reflect on the human condition, about mortality, about the fact they can exist - and then not exist". Etna, which towers 3,310 meters above Sicily, comes to life every few months. The last major eruption was in 1992. {On Mount Etna (AP), Tourist station still in jeopardy}

Concept Support : Universal disturbances are part of any Socio economic environment, and the management decisions (at local, national and inter national levels) have to include and provide for activities to safe-guard and minimise the losses. Italian community and their local administers have pioneered to provide for this  need, and being in danger's path with pre-planning,  has made them wiser and stronger.

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JAPAN

 JAPAN  Support for Economics & Management  Concepts of 
 DR.VSRS             
(SEE CONCEPTS)

GULF NEWS (UAE), Business, July 21, 2000 ( Friday )

Japanese Manufacturers with plants in Britain, hit hard by the pound's strength have grown increasingly impatient with what they see as Blair's prevarication over the single currency the Euro....Japan's third biggest automaker, Nissan Motor Company... has warned the strong pound could divert investment from the plant ( in Sunderland ) to elsewhere in Europe. (OKINAWA, JAPAN. Reuters)

Concept Support : Local investments used to tap  the potentials in a foreign market. Improper evaluation of  the Intangible and Tangible aspects, as well as the political and financial implications in  the potential market location, on a long-rage basis. 

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JORDAN

JORDAN  Support for Economics & Management  Concepts of  DR.VSRS     (SEE CONCEPTS)

ARABIAN BUSINESS (UK), October 2001, Page 44.45.

How can a country with few natural resources, soaring unemployment, and an external debt close to 100% GDP revive its economy and make its mark on the global stage ? How does it integrate itself into the global economy and the information highway ? The conventional answer prescribed by what is known as the Washington Consensus - namely the World Bank, IMF and the US government - is economic liberalization and opening up the country to foreign investors. But what if the country is situated in the midst of one of the most politically volatile regions of the world ?...If the country is Jordan, then the answer is yes, albeit a qualified one....While modest in terms of size, the investment pouring into Jordan signify a remarkable success by the government, especially when taking into account the ongoing turmoil in the Palestinian territories. In the large part though, the key to Jordan's success lies at the hands of its monarch His Majesty King Abdullah II. Having ascended the throne in February 1999, the King has made economic revival his top priority.... While it has little natural resources, Jordan has a one of the lowest illiteracy rates in the Middle East at 8% in adult males, and 18% in adult females, according to a research report published in May 2001 by Standard & Poors. This coupled with highly educated population makes human capital the Kingdom's strength.... The abundance of technology firms and the changing psyche of the banks in the Kingdom are indicative of how times have changed. "The difference for Jordan is the delivery of quality service, an ability to meet deadlines, and continuous innovation largely driven by a large pool of talented young people who go beyond standard applications... According to Raed Bilbessi CEO of Int@j, the Information Technology Association of Jordan, the country boasts of 80 to 120 value adding IT companies, employing approximately 3,000 employees, in addition to 400-500 software and hardware resellers, employing around 10,000 people (One World, A Leading Light).

Concept Support : Management decision of the Ruler is centred around a Productivity guideline with reference to the Socio Economic Development, and cautious and careful approach towards the psyche of core financial sectors and psycho-sociology of the educated population. Domestic human capital is optimally utilised to manpower the latest technology, moderated to suit the local conditions (Endogenous). The domestic government and the banking sectors are tuned to provide for local investments, as well as the foreign investment with local participation criteria (Exogenous).

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GULF NEWS (UAE), Business,  UAE/International, August 19, 2001 (Sunday ). Page 22

Jordanians should replace foreign workers in order to reduce the country's double-digit unemployment rate, Labour Minister Eid Fayez said yesterday, reports AFP.  There are 300,000 foreign workers in Jordan where the jobless rate stands at 13.3 per cent. Fayez said on state television.  This "necessitates the replacement of foreign labour by Jordanians" he said, without announcing any specific measures. Fayez said foreigners are most notably present in the construction sector, which Jordanian workers refuse to work in. (Amman. Jordan keep to tackle joblessness)   

Concept Support : Developing countries should utilise domestic labour to man the domestic technology. This strengthens the Endogenous aspect of the Socio-economic structure, and provides the path towards accelerating the Socio-economic development.

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KUWAIT

 KUWAIT  Support for Economics & Management  Concepts of 
 DR.VSRS
       (SEE CONCEPTS)

ACN (Arabian Computer News), An ITP Publication, Jabel Ali, Dubai, UAE. Front End, December 2000, Page 6

Kuwait government has jumped on the e-government bandwagon. In an interview with the Kuwait News Agency, the Minister of Planning and Minister of State for Administration Development, Dr. Mohammed Al Duwaihees, said the e-government drive would - at the local level - increase the efficiency and speed of government institutions and cause radical change for the better in various sectors, individuals and society as a whole.  If all goes according to plan, e-government will reconstruct the government institutions and reduce expatriate manpower, providing opportunities for local manpower in technical fields.  At an international level, Al Duwaihees said the move would enable Kuwait to cope with globalisation in the political and economic spheres.  Organisational moves have already been taken to set up the National Supreme Committee, which will have all authority to push the project through... One of the main hurdles to achieve e-government, says Al Duwaihees, is the ability to deal with the new concept.  (Kuwait Knocks Down Barriers in E-Government).

Concept Support : Developing nations should use  latest technologies moderated to suit local conditions, with local manpower. This is an important Endogenous aspect in Socio-Economic development acceleration.

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LEBANON

 LEBANON  Support for Economics & Management  Concepts of 
 DR.VSRS
  (SEE CONCEPTS)

PANORAMA, Friday Weekly Magazine of Gulf  Today (UAE), September 8-14, 2000,  Page 22-23.

{There is an uneasy communal imbalance on the political scene in Lebanon. The body politic is fractured and factionalised.  In such a situation if Hariri returns to power as prime minister, will he have a smooth sail ahead ?}  While most Lebanese would like to see a reduction of Syrian political influence and fewer Syrian labourers in the work-force, only a handful politicians openly call for this to happen.... The new young Syrian President Bashar Al Assad adopts a more distanced approach to Lebanon than his conservative father.  Dr.Bashar is more keen on building a common market between Syria and Lebanon than exercising "control". He would like to see the new administration deal firmly with the country's acute economic crisis so such a market can become a reality.   The second myth purports that the election inaugurated an era of "change" and a "new order" for Lebanon. Lebanon is stuck in a time wrap. The country's political life is conducted in accordance with a formula laid down in 1943, just before independence. This formula, amended by Taif agreement, divides membership in parliament equally between Christians, 30 per cent of the population, and Muslims, who account for 70 per cent. This creates an uneasy communal balance on the political scene.   Furthermore, since all 18 sectarian communities must have a voice, the body politic is fractured and fractionalised {Lebanon : Stuck in  a time wrap By Michael Jansen}

Concept Support : In the management decision process of a government,  any set-up with heavy sided psychological and social intensive components (Racial, Religious etc...) should plan and evaluate their decisions very cautiously.  The Socio-economic development of the nation as a whole, should be considered as priority, than a group, sector or regional sectarian development.  Neglecting this guideline could result in un-bearable losses and economic dis-integration, not only to the concerned nation, but also can have a bitter impact to people of all other nations in the world, attempting to associate with them.  Faster realisation of this fact is important or otherwise there will be a time wrap, and the government set-up will be fractured and factionalised.

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